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油脂类与淀粉类种子的耐脱水特性比较
张宏锦, 潘 萌, 郭素娟
北京林业大学 省部共建森林培育与保护教育部重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】探明油脂类和淀粉类种子耐脱水性以及种子各组成部分含水量与整体含水量的关系,为油松和板栗种质资源长期贮藏提供依据。【方法】以油松(Pinus tabuliformis)和板栗(Castanea mollissima)种子为试材,采用硅胶干燥法获得不同含水量梯度的种子,并将其分离为种皮、种胚和胚乳(子叶),通过回归分析获得种子整体含水量与不同部位间含水量的关系。同时,测定脱水过程中种子生活力以及种胚、胚乳(子叶)内SOD活性和内含物的变化。【结果】油松和板栗种子的种胚、胚乳(子叶)与整粒种子含水量之间存在显著的线性关系;油松和板栗种子脱水的致死含水量分别为2.42%和18.93%,对应的种胚含水量分别为2.39%和46.43%;脱水的适宜含水量分别为3.34%和34.12%,对应的种胚含水量分别为2.79%和53.36%;随着油松和板栗种子含水量的下降,其种胚、胚乳(子叶)内SOD活性、可溶性糖含量均呈先上升后下降趋势,而淀粉的含量则呈持续下降趋势。【结论】种子SOD活性、可溶性糖含量与2种种子耐脱水性密切相关,且可溶性糖含量是导致油松和板栗种子耐脱水性差异的重要因素,可尝试使用蔗糖浸种的方法来提高板栗种子的耐脱水性。
关键词:  种子贮藏  耐脱水性  油松  板栗  种胚  种子生活力
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家林业公益性行业科研专项重大项目(201204401);“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD14B0402)
Comparison of dehydration tolerance of oil and starch seeds
ZHANG Hongjin, PAN Meng, GUO Sujuan,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated dehydration tolerance of oil and starch seeds and explored the relationship between moisture contents in different parts and whole seeds to provide basis for long-term storage of pine and chestnut seeds.【Method】The seeds of pine (Pinus tabuliformis) and chestnut (Castanea mollissima) with different moisture content gradients were obtained by silica gel drying method and separated into seed coat,seed embryo and endosperm (cotyledon).The relationship between moisture content of whole seed and its different parts was obtained by regression analysis.The viability of the embryo,SOD activity and inclusion changes in the embryo and endosperm (cotyledon) were measured in dehydration process.【Result】The moisture content of whole seeds of pine and chestnut had significant linear relationship with embryo and endosperm (cotyledon).The lethal moisture contents of pine and chestnut whole seeds were 2.42% and 18.93%,and the corresponding moisture contents of embryo were 2.39% and 46.43%,respectively.The suitable moisture contents were 3.34% and 34.12%,corresponding to the embryo moisture contents of 2.79% and 53.36%.As the moisture content of pine and chestnut seeds decreased,SOD activity and soluble sugar content of both seed embryo and endosperm (cotyledon) increased firstly and then decreased, while starch content decreased all the time.【Conclusion】SOD activity and soluble sugar content were closely related to the dehydration resistance of the two seeds,and soluble sugar was an important factor leading to the difference in dehydration tolerance between pine and chestnut seeds.Therefore,it is possible to use sucrose soaking method to improve dehydration tolerance of chestnut seeds.
Key words:  seed storage  dehydration tolerance  pine  chestnut  seed embryo  seed viability

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