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玉米种植制度对红壤钾素形态及其有效性的影响
蔡 艳1,2, 蔡泽慧1,2, 苟小梅,等1,2
1.四川农业大学 资源学院;2.自然资源部 耕地资源调查监测与保护利用重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】探讨玉米种植制度对红壤土壤钾形态及其有效性的影响,为该区域合理安排种植制度和玉米地土壤钾素管理提供依据。【方法】于春播前采集红壤区撂荒(CK)、玉米连作(CY)、豌豆-玉米轮作(RWY)和西葫芦-玉米轮作(RXY)4个种植制度下耕层(0~20 cm)和亚耕层(20~40 cm)土壤,测定其土壤理化性质和各形态钾含量,并分析其相关性。【结果】4个玉米种植制度下土壤各形态钾分布规律不同,耕层土壤水溶性钾、非特殊吸附钾、特殊吸附钾和非交换性钾含量均高于亚耕层,矿物钾含量未表现出典型规律,种植制度对耕层土壤钾素含量影响更大。耕层和亚耕层土壤的水溶性钾、特殊吸附钾和非特殊吸附钾均与速效钾含量呈极显著正相关,特殊吸附钾是该区有效钾的最大供应源。与玉米轮作相比,玉米连作导致土壤酸化程度增加,尽管其速效钾含量显著高于其他土壤(P<0.05),但长期采用玉米连作不利于维持土壤钾素平衡。轮作可降低土壤酸化程度,防止速效钾过度累积,其中西葫芦-玉米轮作可使土壤供钾能力处于较高水平并保持稳定。【结论】玉米种植制度对红壤耕层钾形态及其有效性影响较大,其中西葫芦-玉米轮作是该区钾素可持续利用的玉米最佳种植制度。
关键词:  种植制度  钾形态  有效钾  红壤  玉米栽培
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目“四川盆地东北部套作春玉米化肥减施增效技术集成与应用”(2018YFD0200704-03)
Effects of maize based cropping systems on forms and availability of potassium in red soil
CAI Yan,CAI Zehui,GOU Xiaomei,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This paper explored the effects of maize based cropping systems on the forms and availability of potassium (K) in red soil to provide basis for rational cropping system designing and soil K management in the red soil areas.【Method】Before spring sowing,soil samples were collected from the cultivated layer (0-20 cm) and sub-cultivated layer (20-40 cm) under four cropping systems,including abandoned land (CK),maize continuous cropping (CY),pea-maize rotation (RWY) and zucchini-maize rotation (RXY).Soil properties and contents of different K forms were determined,and analyze its correlation.【Result】The distribution patterns of soil K forms were different under the four cropping systems.The contents of water-soluble K,non-specially adsorbed K,specially adsorbed K and non-exchangeable K in the cultivated layer were higher than those in the sub-cultivated layer.The mineral K contents did not show the typical pattern.Planting systems had greater effects on soil K contents in the cultivated layer than sub-cultivated layer.The contents of water-soluble K,specially adsorbed K and non-specially adsorbed K had significantly positive correlation with the available K,and the specially adsorbed K was the largest source of available K supply in this area.Compared to corn rotation,continuous maize cropping increased soil acidification.Although its available K content was significantly higher than that of other soils (i>P<0.05),long-term continuous cropping of maize was not conducive to maintaining soil K balance.Maize rotation could reduce soil acidification and prevent excessive accumulation of available K,especially zucchini-maize rotation could keep soil K supply capacity at high and stable levels.【Conclusion】Maize cropping system had great influences on the forms and availability of K in the cultivated layer of red soil.The zucchini-maize rotation was the best maize cropping system for sustainable utilization of K in this area.
Key words:  planting system  potassium form  potassium availability  red soil  maize planting

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