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色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林及其采伐迹地土壤养分特征研究
高 郯, 李江荣, 卢 杰,等
西藏农牧学院 高原生态研究所,西藏高原森林生态教育部重点实验室,西藏林芝高山森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站
摘要:
【目的】了解西藏色季拉山优势树种急尖长苞冷杉(Abies georgei var.smithii)林地及其采伐迹地的土壤养分状况,为森林管理及采伐迹地的恢复提供理论依据。【方法】以急尖长苞冷杉林地及其采伐迹地土壤为研究对象,采用单因素方差、化学计量比(C/N、C/P、N/P)及主成分分析等方法,对照全国第二次土壤普查标准,对其0~10,10~20,20~40,40~60,60~100 cm土层的pH 和8种养分(有机质、全氮、水解氮、全磷、速效磷、全钾、速效钾、缓效钾)含量、土壤肥力限制性因素及土壤综合肥力进行比较分析。【结果】(1)急尖长苞冷杉林及其采伐迹地的土壤pH为4.35~5.70,均为酸性土壤。(2)急尖长苞冷杉林及其采伐迹地的土壤有机质、全氮及水解氮含量总体上随土层的加深而递减,其他养分含量变化规律不统一;不同养分含量在各土层间的差异性略有不同;除全磷、全钾外,急尖长苞冷杉林土壤有机质、全氮和水解氮、速效磷、速效钾、缓效钾含量分别为57.19,2.17 g/kg和723.47,22.86,247.83,744.30 mg/kg,采伐迹地中分别为46.50,1.67 g/kg和557.80,10.55,87.87,188.03 mg/kg,均表现为急尖长苞冷杉林大于采伐迹地。(3)除土壤C/N外,急尖长苞冷杉林的土壤C/P(101.64)和N/P(6.15)均高于采伐迹地(55.29和3.05),且急尖长苞冷杉林及其采伐迹地的化学计量比均高于中国陆地土壤平均水平,其中急尖长苞冷杉林及其采伐迹地土壤全磷含量分别为0.45和0.50 g/kg,均处于全国第二次土壤普查分级标准中的较缺水平(0.4~0.6 g/kg)。(4)3个主成分的累计贡献率达79.334%,分别为39.534%,26.347%和13.453%,依次受有机质、全氮、水解氮和速效钾、缓效钾及全磷、速效磷的影响;急尖长苞冷杉林内0~100 cm土层土壤肥力指数均值(0.552)大于采伐迹地(0.278),各土层土壤肥力指数亦均高于采伐迹地。【结论】采伐森林会对土壤肥力造成负面影响,因此采伐过后要及时进行更新恢复,全磷是其土壤肥力的限制性因素。
关键词:  色季拉山  急尖长苞冷杉  采伐迹地  土壤养分  化学计量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:科技部国家野外科学研究观测站(生态系统)运行补助项目(西藏林芝高山森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究2015-2020);西藏自治区厅校基金联合项目(XZ2018ZR G-16)
Soil nutrient characteristics of Abies georgei var. smithii forest and its cutting site in Sejila Mountain
GAO Tan, LI Jiangrong, LU Jie,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the soil nutrient status of the A. georgei var. smithii forest as the dominant tree species of Sejila Mountain in Tibet and its cutting site to provide basis for the management of forest and restoration of cutting sites.【Method】pH,contents of 8 soil nutrient species (organic matter,total nitrogen,hydrolyzed nitrogen,total phosphorus,available phosphorus,total potassium,available potassium,and slowly available potassium),soil fertility limiting factors and soil comprehensive fertility were studied in soil layers of 0-10,10-20,20-40,40-60 and 60-100 cm by the one-way anova,stoichiometric ratios (C/N,C/P and N/P),and principal component analysis.They were also compared with the second National Soil Census Standards.【Result】(1) The soil pH ranges of the A. georgei var.smithii forest and its cutting site were 4.35 to 5.70,and both were acidic soils.(2) The soil organic matter,total nitrogen and hydrolyzed nitrogen contents of A. georgei var. smithii forest and its cutting sites generally decreased with the increase of soil layer depth,while other nutrients changed differently.Differences in different nutrients between soil layers were slightly different.Except for total phosphorus and total potassium,the contents of organic matter,total nitrogen,hydrolyzable nitrogen,available phosphorus,available potassium,and slowly available potassium in A. georgei var. smithii forest (57.19 g/kg,2.17 g/kg,723.47 mg/kg,22.86 mg/kg,247.83 mg/kg,744.30 mg/kg) were larger than in its cutting site (46.50 g/kg,1.67 g/kg,557.80 mg/kg,10.55 mg/kg,87.87 mg/kg and 188.03 mg/kg).(3) Except for soil C/N,soil C/P (101.64)and N/P (6.15)of the A. georgei var. smithii forest were higher than its cutting site (55.29 and 3.05),and both stoichiometric ratios were higher than the Chinese terrestrial soil average levels.The soil total phosphorus contents in A. georgei var.smithii forest and its cutting site were 0.45 and 0.50 g/kg,within the lack range in the standards (0.4 to 0.6 g/kg).(4) The accumulative contribution rate of the three principal components was 79.334% with separate contribution rates of 39.534%,26.347%,and 13.453%,respectively,which were successively affected by organic matter/total nitrogen/hydrolyzable nitrogen,available potassium/slowly available potassium,and total phosphorus/available phosphorus.The fertility of each soil layer in the A. georgei var. smithii forest was higher than that of the cutting site and the fertility values of 0 to 100 cm soil layer in forest and cutting site were 0.552 and 0.278.【Conclusion】The deforestation had negative impact on soil fertility.Therefore,it is necessary to update and restore in time after harvesting.Total phosphorus was the limiting factor for soil fertility.
Key words:  Sejila Mountain  Abies georgei var. smithii  cutting site  soil nutrient  chemometrics

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