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灌水上限和施肥量对温室番茄生长发育的影响
李耀霞, 郁继华, 张国斌,等
甘肃农业大学 园艺学院
摘要:
【目的】研究灌水上限和施肥配比调控措施对日光温室番茄生长发育的影响,为西北地区温室水肥的合理利用提供理论依据。【方法】采用田间试验方法,设灌水和施肥2个因素。对照组(CK)为当地常规传统灌水施肥处理(施N 342 kg/hm2、P2O5 198 kg/hm2、K2O 450 kg/hm2;畦灌,灌水量为8 165.00 m3/hm2);试验组采用滴灌,以田间持水率(θF)为基准,50% θF为灌水下限,设W1(70% θF)、W2(80% θF)、W3(90% θF)3个灌水上限及 F1(N 228 kg/hm2、P2O5 132 kg/hm2、K2O 300 kg/hm2)、F2(N 285 kg/hm2、P2O5 165 kg/hm2、K2O 375 kg/hm2)、F3(N 342 kg/hm2、P2O5 198 kg/hm2、K2O 450 kg/hm2)3个NPK 施肥水平,共10个处理组合,分析各灌水和施肥组合对温室番茄生长发育、光合特性、产量及水分利用效率的影响。【结果】随灌水上限和施肥量的增加,温室番茄植株株高显著增高,而茎粗随处理时间的推移并无明显变化。温室番茄的叶片光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(Gs)以F2W2处理最高,而胞间CO2浓度(Ci)以F2W3处理最高,表明在F2施肥水平下水肥耦合表现出较强的互作效应,植株保持较强的生长活力,其光合速率最高可达23.20 μmol/(m2·s)。干物质质量及产量以F2W2处理最高,分别为8 065.32和111 422.15 kg/hm2,且水分利用效率也最高,达30.22 kg/m2;番茄叶片叶绿素含量总体来看随生育期的推进及灌水和施肥的增加而有所升高,提高光合速率,且番茄产量与叶片光合速率、干物质质量以及叶片光合速率与水分利用效率间均呈显著的线性相关。【结论】在F2W2灌水施肥条件下,即灌水上限为田间持水率的80%,氮(N)、磷(P2O5)、钾肥(K2O)施肥水平分别为285,165,375 kg/hm2时,温室番茄的产量和水分利用效率最高,生产成本较低,该水肥条件可作为温室番茄水肥管理制度加以推广。
关键词:  温室番茄  灌水上限  施肥量  生长发育  光合特性  水分利用效率
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:农业部农业产业技术体系建设项目(CARS-23-C-07);甘肃省科技重大专项计划项目(17ZD2NA015-02)
Effects of irrigation upper limit and fertilizer application on growth and development of tomato in greenhouse
LI Yaoxia, YU Jihua, ZHANG Guobin,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】To provide basis for the rational utilization of greenhouse water and fertilizer in Northwest China,the effects of irrigation upper limit and fertilization ratio on growth and development of tomato in solar greenhouse were studied.【Method】Two factors of irrigation and fertilization were adopted in the field experiment.The control group (CK) was treated with conventional irrigation and fertilizer (N 342 kg/hm2,P2O5 198 kg/hm2,K2O 450 kg/hm2,border irrigation,and irrigation volume 8 165.00 m3/hm2).The experiment group was irrigated with drip irrigation on film and based on the field water holding capacity (θF).The 50% θF was used as the irrigation lower limit,and three upper irrigation limits were W1 (70% θF),W2 (80% θF),and W3 (90% θF).NPK had three levels including F1 (N 228 kg/hm2,P2O5 132 kg/hm2 and K2O 300 kg/hm2),F2 (N 285 kg/hm2,P2O5 165 kg/hm2 and K2O 375 kg/hm2),and F3 (N 342 kg/hm2,P2O5 198 kg/hm2 and K2O 450 kg/hm2).The effects of irrigation and fertilization combination on growth and development,photosynthetic characteristics,yield and water use efficiency of tomato in greenhouse were then analyzed.【Result】The plant height of greenhouse tomato increased significantly with the increase of irrigation upper limit and fertilizer application amount,but the stem diameter did not change significantly with the extension of treatment time.F2W2 treatment had the largest leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of tomato leaves in greenhouse,while F2W3 had the highest intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci),indicating that the coupling effect of water and fertilizer was stronger and plant maintained stronger growth vigor at F2 fertilization level.F2W2 treatment had the highest photosynthetic rate dry biomass,yield and water use efficiency of 23.20 μmol/(m2·s),8 065.32 kg/hm2,111 422.15 kg/hm2,and 30.22 kg/m3,respectively.On the whole,chlorophyll content in tomato leaves increased with the increase of irrigation and fertilization during the growth period and promoted photosynthetic rate.Tomato yield had significant linear correlations with leaf photosynthetic rate,dry biomass,water use efficiency and leaf photosynthetic rate.【Conclusion】The F2W2 treatment with upper limit of irrigation of 80% field water holding rate and fertilization level of N 285 kg/hm2+P2O5 165 kg/hm2+K2O 375 kg/hm2 had the highest yield and water use efficiency and relatively low production cost.Thus,this condition should be popularized in greenhouse tomato water and fertilizer management system.
Key words:  greenhouse tomato  irrigation upper limit of soil water for irrigation  fertilizer rate  growth and development  photosynthetic characteristics  water use efficiency

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