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初植密度对科尔沁沙地樟子松人工林生长和健康状况及土壤化学性质的影响
尹明宇1,2, 吴波1, 乌云塔娜,等2
1.中国林业科学研究院 生态保护与修复研究所;2.中国林业科学研究院 经济林研究所,林木遗传育种国家重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】研究不同初植密度对沙地樟子松人工林生长、健康状况及土壤化学性质的影响,旨在筛选适宜的初植密度,为沙地樟子松人工林的高效培育与可持续经营提供科学依据。【方法】以科尔沁沙地43年生樟子松人工林为对象,研究12个不同初植密度(417~10 000株/hm2)下樟子松人工林生长状况(胸径、树高、枝下高、冠幅、单株材积、林分蓄积量、冠形、干形)与健康状况(病级、感病指数)及土壤化学性质(pH和有机碳、全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾含量)的变化,分析初植密度与樟子松人工林生长和健康状况及土壤化学性质间的相关性,采用冗余分析研究土壤化学性质对林分生长和健康状况的影响,并依据土壤化学性质对不同初植密度处理进行综合评价。【结果】①初植密度对沙地樟子松人工林生长、健康状况及土壤化学性质均有极显著影响(P<0.001)。随着初植密度的增加,樟子松人工林胸径、冠幅、单株材积和存活率总体上均呈下降趋势,枝下高、冠形、病级和感病指数呈上升趋势,树高以及林分蓄积量呈先上升后下降趋势。当初植密度为1 667~2 500株/hm2时,樟子松人工林的感病指数、存活率和林分蓄积量表现较优。②随着初植密度的增加,土壤有机碳、全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾含量以及pH值整体呈上升-下降-上升-下降的变化趋势。③相关性分析结果显示,初植密度与樟子松胸径、冠幅、单株材积呈极显著负相关,与枝下高、冠形、病级和感病指数呈显著(P<0.05)或极显著(P<0.01)正相关;与土壤有效磷含量呈显著正相关,与土壤pH值及有机碳、全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、速效钾含量呈负相关,但相关性不显著。④冗余分析结果表明,土壤化学性质对林分生长和健康指标变异的解释率之和为68.43%,土壤有效磷是其中最主要的影响因子;综合评价结果显示,当初植密度分别为1 667和2 500株/hm2时,土壤化学性质指标综合得分较高,说明其有利于土壤养分的积累。【结论】初植密度与樟子松人工林林分生长、健康状况及土壤化学性质密切相关,樟子松造林适宜采用中等初植密度(1 667~2 500株/hm2)。
关键词:  樟子松  初植密度  林分健康  土壤化学性质  科尔沁沙地
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0500806);国家自然科学基金项目(32001372)
Effects of initial planting density on growth,health status and soil chemical properties of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica plantations in Horqin Sandy Land
YIN Mingyu,WU Bo,WUYUN tana,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】Growth,health status and soil chemical properties were studied in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations with different initial planting densities on sandy lands and suitable densities were screened to provide basis for efficient cultivation and sustainable management of its plantations.【Method】Growth performance indexes including diameter at breast height (DBH),tree height,height to live crown base,crown width,individual tree volume,stand volume,stem form and crown shape,disease status including disease grade and index,and soil chemical properties including pH value and contents of organic carbon,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium,alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium were analyzed in 43-year-old P. sylvestris var. mongolica trial plantations with 12 initial planting densities (417-10 000 individual/hm2) in Horqin Sandy Land.The correlations of initial planting density with growth,health status and soil chemical properties were assessed.Redundancy analysis was used to study the effect of soil chemical properties on forest growth and health indicators,and different initial planting densities were evaluated comprehensively according to soil chemical properties.【Result】① There were extremely significant (P<0.001) differences in growth and health indexes of plants and soil chemical properties among different initial planting densities.DBH,crown width,individual volume and preservation rate decreased,height to live crown base,crown shape,disease grade and disease index increased,while tree height and stand volume increased first and then decreased with the increase of initial planting density.The disease index,preservation rate and stand volume performed well in plantations with initial planting densities of 1 667-2 500 individual/hm2.② The contents of soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,total phosphorus, total potassium,alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen,available phosphorus,available potassium and pH values showed an overall trend of increasing-decreasing-increasing-decreasing with increasing initial planting densities.③ The initial planting density had highly significantly negative correlation with DBH,crown width and individual tree volume,while it had significantly or highly significantly positive correlations with height to live crown base,crown shape,disease grade and disease susceptibility index.Initial planting density also had significantly positive correlation with soil available phosphorus content,while it had insignificant negative correlations with soil pH value and contents of organic carbon,total nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium,alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen and available potassium.④ The RDA analysis showed that soil chemical properties explained 68.43% variations for stand growth and health, among which soil available phosphorus content was the most important factor.Comprehensive evaluation indicated that the comprehensive scores of soil chemical properties were high with initial planting densities of 1 667-2 500 individual/hm2,which were beneficial for soil nutrient accumulation.【Conclusion】Initial planting density was closely related to stand growth,health and soil chemical properties.Medium planting densities (1 667-2 500 individual/hm2) were suitable for P. sylvestris var. mongolica.
Key words:  Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica  initial planting density  stand health  soil chemical property  Horqin Sandy Land