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西安市灞河下游水文情势变化及生态影响分析
朱记伟1, 解建仓1, 杨 柳1
西安理工大学 西北水资源与环境生态教育部重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】研究城市化进程中西安市灞河下游水文情势的变化特征,分析其改变程度对河流生态系统完整性和稳定性的影响,为灞河开发治理和生态调度提供参考。【方法】根据西安市灞河马渡王水文站1972-2010年的实测日流量资料,以2001年为节点,将39年水文序列划分为节点前的“近自然状态”和节点后的“人工干扰状态”2种条件,采用变异性范围法(RVA)评价水文改变指标(IHA),即月平均流量、年极值流量、出现时间、高低流量频率及历时、流量变化率及频率等指标特征,量化河流受影响程度,进而分析河流水文情势变化情况。【结果】由于西安城市向东部扩展和实施流域综合治理,灞河下游水文条件受到人工干扰。在IHA的5类指标中,除年极值流量出现时间变化不大外,另外4类指标均有显著变化,河流水文情势整体改变度为63.98%。【结论】灞河河流水文情势发生中度改变,其有利影响占主导地位,但今后应结合下游水文变化及生态影响进行河流规划和治理开发,同时调整已建、新建工程运行方式,合理调度水资源,维护河流生态健康。
关键词:  灞河  水文情势  生态影响  IHA  变异性范围法
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51209170);陕西省科学计划研究项目(2012JQ5014);陕西水利科技计划项目(2012-07);西安理工大学博士启动基金项目(118-211103)
Downstream hydrological changes and ecological impacts of Bahe River in Xi’an
Abstract:
【Objective】This paper studied the hydrological variation and its effects on integrity and stability of river ecosystems to improve the development and protection of Bahe River area.【Method】Using measured daily flows from 1972 to 2010 at Maduwang station of Bahe River in Xi’an,the hydrological series for 39 years were divided into two sequences:“near natural state river” before 2001 and “man-interfered river” after 2001.According to the range of variability approach (RVA),this article evaluated the hydrologic parameters,mean every month average flow,annual average extreme,annual extreme appearing time,high and low flow frequency and period,flow change rate,and frequency,before quantifying the influence degree of river discharge,and analyzing river hydrological changes.【Result】The downstream hydrological conditions of Bahe River were artificially interfered due to the eastward extension and implementation of integrated river basin management by Xi’an.4 out of the 5 IHA indexes significantly changed except the annual extreme appearing time with an overall change degree of 63.98%.【Conclusion】Beneficial effects dominated the moderate change of Bahe River hydrological regime.However,rational plan,development and use of basin water resources should be considered for future development.Constructed or under-construction projects should be adjusted as well.
Key words:  Bahe River  hydrological regime  ecological impact  index of hydrologic alteration  range of variability approach (RVA)