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氮肥减量配施碳基营养肥对大白菜产量和品质及土壤养分的影响
刘学硕1, 崔佳月1, 刘光源,等1
西北农林科技大学 园艺学院
摘要:
【目的】阐明碳基营养肥和化肥对土壤养分及大白菜生长、产量和品质的影响,为大白菜生产中合理施肥提供参考。【方法】以大白菜品种春大白菜9号为研究对象,在西北农林科技大学太白蔬菜试验示范站和陕西杨凌的曹新庄试验农场2个试验点同时进行大白菜施肥试验。试验共设常规施肥(N、P2O5、K2O的施用量分别为300,120和112.5 kg/hm2,CK)、有机 无机复混肥(N、P2O5、K2O的施用量分别为360,240和120 kg/hm2,OF)、常规施肥基础上减施氮肥15%(N1)、常规施肥基础上减施氮肥30%(N2)、N1处理基础上配施碳基营养肥2 250 kg/hm2(CN1)、N2处理基础上配施碳基营养肥2 250 kg/hm2(CN2)6个施肥处理,每处理3次重复。分别采集2个试验点大白菜莲座期、结球期、采收期0~20 cm根围土壤,测定土壤养分含量,并于采收期测定大白菜农艺性状、产量和品质,分析不同施肥措施对大白菜种植区土壤养分及大白菜品质和产量的影响。【结果】2个试验点减施氮肥显著抑制了大白菜生长,降低了大白菜产量,而施用有机 无机复混肥和碳基营养肥对大白菜产量和品质有明显促进作用,其中太白试验点OF和CN1处理大白菜的产量较CK分别显著增加12.8%和7.6%。配施碳基营养肥处理可以显著提高大白菜的营养品质,2个试验点CN1处理大白菜的可溶性蛋白含量较CK分别显著增加了29.6%和29.1%,可溶性糖含量较CK分别显著增加了106.9%和60.6%,维生素C含量较CK分别显著增加了15.5%和25.3%。在大白菜的同一生育时期,2个试验点施肥处理土壤理化性质的变化趋势类似,在大白菜采收期,与CK相比,太白与杨凌试验点的CN1处理土壤EC分别显著下降19.9%和7.0%,而土壤铵态氮含量分别显著增加25.2%和33.1%,土壤硝态氮含量分别显著增加10.8%和17.1%,土壤有效磷含量分别显著增加23.7%和30.7%。【结论】在两种类型土壤上施用有机-无机复混肥与碳基营养肥均取得了较好的表现,其中OF和CN1处理能够增加土壤养分含量,提高土壤综合肥力水平,进而促进大白菜生长,改善大白菜营养品质。
关键词:  大白菜  减量施肥  碳基营养肥  土壤养分
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-23-G22);陕西省重点研发计划项目(2020NY-061,2021LLRH-07);陕西省提升公众科学素质计划项目(2021PSL133)
Effects of nitrogen fertilizer reduction combined with carbon-based nutrient fertilizer on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage and soil nutrients
LIU Xueshuo,CUI Jiayue,LIU Guangyuan,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The effects of carbon-based nutrient fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on soil nutrients and growth,yield and quality of Chinese cabbage were clarified to provide reference for rational fertilization in Chinese cabbage production.【Method】Taking Spring Chinese No. 9 as the research object,the fertilization experiment of Chinese cabbage was carried out at Taibai Vegetable Experimental Demonstration Station of Northwest A&F University and Caoxinzhuang Experimental Farm in Yangling,Shaanxi.Six fertilization treatments of conventional fertilization (N,P2O5 and K2O application rates were 300,120 and 112.5 kg/hm2,CK),organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (N,P2O5 and K2O application rates were 360,240 and 120 kg/hm2,OF),15% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer on the basis of conventional fertilization (N1),30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer on the basis of conventional fertilization (N2),2 250 kg/hm2 of carbon based nutrient fertilizer on the basis of N1 treatment (CN1) and 2 250 kg/hm2 of carbon-based nutrient fertilizer on the basis of N2 treatment (CN2).Each treatment had 3 replicates.The 0-20 cm rhizosphere soil samples were collected from two experimental sites at rosette stage,heading stage and harvesting stage.The soil nutrient content was measured,and agronomic traits,yield and quality of Chinese cabbage were measured at harvesting stage.The effects of different fertilization measures on soil nutrients as well as quality and yield of Chinese cabbage were then analyzed.【Result】The reduction of nitrogen fertilizer significantly inhibited the growth of Chinese cabbage and reduced the yield,while the application of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer and carbon-based nutrient fertilizer significantly promoted the yield and quality.The yields of Chinese cabbage treated with OF and CN1 in Taibai area were significantly increased by 12.8% and 7.6%,respectively,compared with CK.The two treatments with carbon-based nutrient fertilizer significantly improved nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage.The contents of soluble protein,soluble sugar and vitamin C in Chinese cabbage in treatment CN1 were significantly increased by 29.6%,106.9% and 15.5% in Taibai and 29.1%,60.6% and 25.3%in Yangling.In the same growth periods,the change trends of soil physical and chemical properties of fertilization treatments in two sites were similar.In the harvest period,soil EC of CN1 treatment in Taibai and Yangling decreased significantly by 19.9% and 7.0%,respectively.The content of ammonium nitrogen increased significantly by 25.2% and 33.1%,the content of nitrate nitrogen increased significantly by 10.8% and 17.1%,and the content of available phosphorus increased significantly by 23.7% and 30.7%,respectively.【Conclusion】The application of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer and carbon-based nutrient fertilizer achieved good performance in both soil types.OF and CN1 treatments increased nutrient content of soil and improved comprehensive fertility level of soil,and thus promoted the growth and nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage.
Key words:  Chinese cabbage  fertilization  carbon-based nutrition fertilizer  soil nutrients