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葡萄种质抗寒性鉴定及综合评价
丁思悦1, 王雨婷1, 赵佳琪,等1
西北农林科技大学 葡萄酒学院
摘要:
【目的】对葡萄种质抗寒性进行鉴定与比较,分析不同葡萄品种在低温胁迫过程中生理响应的差异并探索葡萄抗寒性评价方法,为葡萄抗寒品种的鉴定、选育、品种区域化布局及栽培管理提供理论依据。【方法】通过高低温交变箱模拟低温环境,在4 ℃(对照)和-5,-15,-25,-35 ℃低温条件下,以来源于美洲种、欧山杂种、欧美杂种、欧亚种的66份葡萄品种一年生枝条为材料,采用聚类分析法对枝条的低温半致死温度(LT50)、组织褐变率、含水量(自由水与束缚水)进行分类评价和筛选,在此基础上筛选抗低温或低温敏感的葡萄品种,进一步分析其相对电导率及丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性蛋白、游离脯氨酸含量的差异,并结合隶属函数法和主成分分析法对不同葡萄品种抗寒性及抗寒生理指标进行综合评价。【结果】在66份葡萄种质中,欧亚种葡萄的低温半致死温度为-10.87~-17.45 ℃,低温胁迫后欧亚种葡萄的组织褐变率较高;美洲种葡萄低温半致死温度为-19.80~-29.68 ℃,自由水/束缚水值低于其他葡萄种质;通过聚类分析可将66份葡萄种质的抗寒性分为5类,抗寒性由强到弱依次为美洲种>欧山杂种>欧美杂种>欧亚种。从中筛选出12份抗低温或低温敏感品种,分别为美洲种5BB、SO4、1103P、康可和香槟,欧山杂种北醇和公酿1号,欧美杂种巨峰和康拜尔,欧亚种赤霞珠、蛇龙珠、霞多丽,对其进行的抗寒生理指标测定及综合评价结果表明,随着处理温度的降低,12份葡萄品种一年生枝条的相对电导率及MDA含量、可溶性蛋白含量总体呈上升趋势,游离脯氨酸含量先上升后下降;与对照相比,霞多丽、蛇龙珠枝条的相对电导率、MDA含量增加幅度较大,5BB、SO4枝条的可溶性蛋白、游离脯氨酸含量增加幅度较大,其余品种各指标增加幅度较小。【结论】不同来源的葡萄种质抗寒性存在差异,抗寒性强弱依次表现为美洲种>欧山杂种>欧美杂种>欧亚种。12个抗低温或低温敏感葡萄品种的抗寒性由强到弱依次为5BB、SO4、康可、北醇、1103P、香槟、公酿1号、巨峰、赤霞珠、蛇龙珠、康拜尔、霞多丽。半致死温度、相对电导率、MDA含量、枝条含水量可作为葡萄抗寒性的综合评价指标。
关键词:  葡萄  抗寒性评价  低温胁迫  半致死温度
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:陕西省重点研发计划项目(2022NY-113);陕西省自然科学基金重点项目(2018JZ3003);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-29-zp-6)
Identification and comprehensive evaluation of cold resistance among grape germplasm
DING Siyue,WANG Yuting,ZHAO Jiaqi,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The cold resistance of grape germplasm was identified and compared,the differences in physiological response of different grape varieties to low temperature stress were analyzed,and grape cold resistance evaluation methods were explored to provide basis for identification,breeding,regionalization and cultivation management of cold resistant grape varieties.【Method】The low-temperature environment was simulated in a high and low-temperature alternating chamber at 4 ℃ (control),-5,-15,-25 and -35 ℃.Annual branches of 66 grape varieties of V. labrusca,V. vinifera×V. amurensis,V. vinifera×V. labrusca and V. vinifera were selected.The low temperature semi-lethal temperature (LT50),browning rate and water content (free water and bound water) of the branches were classified,evaluated and screened by cluster analysis.On this basis,low temperature resistant and sensitive grape varieties were screened and differences in relative conductivity and contents of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein and free proline were analyzed.The cold resistance and physiological indexes of different grape varieties were evaluated by the membership function method and principal component analysis.【Result】Among the 66 grape varieties,the semi-lethal temperature of V. vinifera was-10.87 ℃--17.45 ℃ and its browning rate was high after low temperature stress.The semi-lethal temperature of V. labrusca was -19.80 ℃--29.68 ℃ and its free water/bound water value was lower than other germplasm resources.Through cluster analysis,the cold resistance of grape germplasm resources was divided into 5 categories with decreasing order of V. labrusca>V. vinifera×V. amurensis>V. vinifera×V. labrusca>V. vinifera.Twelve varieties with low temperature resistance and sensitivity were 5BB,SO4,1103P,Concord,Champagne in V. labrusca,Beichun,Gongniang No.1 in V. vinifera×V. amurensis,Kyoho,Campbell in V. vinifera×V. labrusca,Cabernet Sauvignon,Cabernet Gernischt and Chardonnay in V. vinifera.The determination and comprehensive evaluation showed that relative conductivity and contents of MDA and soluble protein in branches of 12 grape varieties increased with the decrease of temperature,while free proline content increased firstly and then decreased.Compared with the control,relative conductivity and MDA content in branches of Chardonnay and Cabernet Gernischt increased greatly,contents of soluble protein and free proline in branches of 5BB and SO4 increased greatly,and indexes of other varieties increased slightly.【Conclusion】The cold resistance of different grape germplasm showed differences with decreasing order of V. labrusca>V. vinifera×V. amurensis>V. vinifera×V. labrusca>V. vinifera.The cold resistance of 12 low temperature resistant and sensitive varieties were in the decreasing order of 5BB,SO4,Concord,Beichun,1103P,Champagne,Gongniang No.1,Kyoho,Cabernet Sauvignon,Cabernet Gernischet,Campbell and Chardonnay.Low semi-lethal temperature,relative conductivity and contents of MDA and water in branch can be used as indexes for comprehensive evaluation of grape cold resistance.
Key words:  grape  cold resistance evaluation  low temperature stress  semi-lethal temperature