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汾河流域土地利用景观格局演变及其驱动因素探究
杨珺1,2, 李豪1, 马青,等1
1.太原师范学院 经济与管理学院;2.西北农林科技大学 农学院
摘要:
【目的】分析汾河流域临汾段土地利用面积变化及景观格局演变特征,掌握影响土地利用变化的驱动因素,旨在为汾河流域可持续发展以及生态环境保护提供参考。【方法】以汾河流域中游临汾市为研究区,基于1990-2020年遥感、气象、社会经济等数据,计算该地区的土地利用程度指数、土地利用动态度、土地利用转移矩阵、景观格局指数(类型级别和景观级别),探讨近30年临汾市土地利用面积变化特征及景观格局的变化趋势,利用主成分分析方法筛选影响临汾市土地利用变化的主要驱动因素。【结果】从土地利用结构来看,临汾市土地利用类型以耕地为主,草地和林地次之。从土地面积变化来看,1990-2020年,各土地类型的面积变化量绝对值由大到小依次为建设用地>草地>耕地>林地>水域>未利用地,其中建设用地、林地及水域面积均增长,其余土地类型面积均减少;土地利用类型转移以耕地转为建设用地和草地以及草地转为耕地和林地为主。景观类型级别方面,耕地、林地和草地的最大斑块指数(LPI)、景观形状指数(LSI)、斑块平均大小(AREA_MN)和斑块结合度(COHESION)均较高;景观级别方面,随着时间的延长,斑块数量(NP)、斑块密度(PD)、香农多样性指数(SHDI)和香农均匀度指数(SHEI)总体均增加,边缘面积分维指数(PAFRAC)和蔓延度指数(CONTAG)均减少。主成分分析结果表明,社会经济因素、产业结构因素和自然因素是临汾市土地利用面积变化最主要的驱动因素。【结论】1990-2020年,临汾市的土地利用面积与景观格局发生了明显变化,探明了影响临汾市土地利用面积变化的主要驱动因素,其中建设用地、草地、林地和耕地受各驱动因素的影响较明显。
关键词:  土地利用  转移矩阵  景观格局  驱动因素  汾河流域
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:山西省哲学社会科学规划课题(2022YJ097);山西省高等学校科技创新项目(2021L442);太原师范学院大学生创新创业训练项目(CXCY2219)
Evolution and driving factors of land use landscape pattern in the Fenhe River Basin
YANG Jun,LI Hao,MA Qing,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study analyzed the characteristics of land use area changes and landscape pattern evolution in the Linfen section of the Fenhe River Basin and investigated the driving factors to provide reference for sustainable development and ecological environment protection.【Method】Based on remote sensing,meteorology,social economy and other data from 1990 to 2020,the land use degree index,dynamic degree,Stochastic matrix,and landscape pattern indexes (type level and landscape level) in Linfen at the middle reaches of the Fenhe River basin were calculated.The changing characteristics of land use area and the changing trend of landscape pattern in Linfen in the past 30 years were discussed and the main driving factors were screened by principal component analysis.【Result】From the perspective of land use structure,cultivated land was the main type of land use in Linfen,followed by grassland and forest land.From the perspective of land area change,the absolute area changes of land types were in the order of construction land>grassland>cultivated land>forest land>water area>unused land from 1990 to 2020.The areas of construction land,forest land and water area increased,while the areas of other land types decreased.The transfer of land use types mainly included the conversion of arable land to construction land and grassland and the conversion of grassland to arable land and forest land.In terms of landscape type level,the largest patch index (LPI),landscape shape index (LSI),average patch size (AREA-MN) and patch cohesion (COHESION) of cultivated land,forest land and grassland were relatively high.In terms of landscape level,the numbers of patches (NP),patch density (PD),Shannon Diversity index (SHDI) and Shannon Evenness Index (SHEI) gradually increased over time,while the perimeter-area index of edge area (PAFRAC) and contagion index (CONTAG) generally decreased.The principal component analysis showed that social economy,industrial structure and natural factors were the main driving factors of land use changes in Linfen.【Conclusion】From 1990 to 2020,the land use area and landscape pattern of Linfen changed significantly,and the main driving factors included social economy,industrial structure and natural factors.Construction land,grassland,forest land and cultivated land were significantly affected by the driving factors.
Key words:  land use  transfer matrix  landscape pattern  drivers  Fenhe River Basin