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光周期和外源铁对番茄光合特性、果实品质及矿质元素含量的影响
张 毅1, 梁 祎1, 韩 静,等1
山西农业大学 园艺学院/山西省设施蔬菜提质增效协同创新中心
摘要:
【目的】探究不同光周期条件下不同浓度外源铁(EDTA-Fe,简称Fe)对番茄光合特性、果实品质及矿质元素含量的影响,为基于光周期和Fe营养协同促进设施番茄营养品质的改善提供理论依据。【方法】以草莓柿子番茄为试材,设置2个光周期(12 h/12 h和16 h/8 h),进入开花期后在番茄叶面喷施不同浓度(0(CK),100,150,200 μmol/L)Fe肥,研究光周期和外源Fe对番茄叶片叶绿素含量和光合特性、果实品质及矿质元素含量的影响。【结果】2种光周期下,随着外源Fe浓度的增加,番茄叶片叶绿素a(Chl a)、叶绿素b(Chl b)、类胡萝卜素(Caro)、叶绿素总含量(Chl a+b)以及净光合速率(Pn)均呈先升高后降低的变化趋势,并且当Fe浓度为150 μmol/L时Chl a、Chl b、Caro、Chl a+b含量和Pn均最高;与CK相比,各Fe肥处理番茄叶片气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)总体均显著升高。2种光周期下,随着外源Fe浓度的增加,番茄果实可溶性糖、VC、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白、番茄红素含量均表现为先升高后降低的变化趋势,并且当Fe浓度为100~150 μmol/L时,以上指标含量均较高;可滴定酸含量表现为先降低后升高的趋势。与12 h/12 h光周期下同一处理相比,16 h/8 h光周期下番茄叶片Chl a、Chl b、Caro、Chl a+b含量和Pn以及果实可溶性糖、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白、番茄红素含量均有不同程度的增加。2种光周期下,叶面喷施Fe肥对成熟期番茄果实K、Ca、Mg、Zn、Fe、Mn含量影响有明显差异。【结论】外源Fe可有效促进不同光周期下番茄光合作用和果实品质的提升,且以16 h/8 h光周期下叶面喷施100~150 μmol/L Fe肥的促进效果较佳。
关键词:  番茄  外源铁  光周期  光合特性  果实品质
DOI:
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基金项目:山西省重点研发计划重点项目子课题(201703D211001-04-03,201903D211011-03)
Effects of photoperiod and exogenous iron on photosynthetic characteristics,fruit quality and mineral elements of tomato
ZHANG Yi,LIANG Yi,HAN Jing,,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study explored the effects of different concentrations of exogenous iron (EDTA-Fe,Fe) on photosynthetic characteristics,fruit quality and mineral elements of tomato under different photoperiod conditions to provide basis for the improvement of tomato nutritional quality based on coordinated regulation of photoperiod and Fe nutrient.【Method】In this experiment,strawberry tomato was planted under two photoperiods (12 h/12 h and 16 h/8 h) to study the effects of photoperiods and exogenous Fe fertilizer (0(CK),100,150 and 200 μmol/L) on photosynthetic characteristics,fruit quality and mineral elements contents of tomato.【Result】Under different photoperiods,with the increase of exogenous Fe concentration,contents of tomato leaf chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b,carotenoids and chlorophyll (a+b) as well as net photosynthetic rate increased to peaks at 150 μmol/L before decreases.Compared with CK,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate of tomato leaves treated with Fe fertilizers were significantly increased.Contents of soluble sugar,Vc,free amino acid,soluble protein and lycopene in tomato fruits increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of exogenous Fe concentration,and high values were obtained when Fe concentration was 100-150 μmol/L.The titratable acid content showed a trend of decreasing first followed by increasing.Compared with the same treatment under 12 h/12 h photoperiod,contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,carotenoids,chlorophyll (a+b) and net photosynthetic rate as well as contents of soluble sugar,free amino acids,soluble protein and lycopene in tomato fruits were increased differently under 16 h/8 h photoperiod.There were significant differences in contents of K,Ca,Mg,Zn,Fe and Mn in tomato fruits at mature stage under the two photoperiods.【Conclusion】Exogenous Fe could effectively promote photosynthesis and fruit quality of tomato under different photoperiods,and spraying 100-150 μmol/L Fe fertilizer on leaf surface under 16 h/8 h photoperiod was the best.
Key words:  tomato  exogenous iron  photoperiod  photosynthesis  fruit quality