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叶面和根部施用沼液对烟叶产质量的影响
任 杰1, 任百战2, 龚鹏飞,等2
1.中国农业科学院 烟草研究所;2.陕西省烟草公司延安市公司
摘要:
【目的】研究叶面和根部施用沼液对陕西延安烟叶产量与质量的影响,明确沼液在延安烟叶生产上的应用效果、施用水平及施用方法,为充分利用沼液资源、提高植烟效益提供依据。【方法】以延安烟区主栽烤烟品种延安1号为材料,研究沼液不同施用水平(原液稀释至30%,25%,20%,15%)和施用方式(叶面喷施、根部穴施)对烟叶经济性状、病害发生、外观质量、化学成分和感官质量的影响。【结果】施用沼液能够提高烟叶产量和产值,抑制病毒病和气候斑点病的发生,但叶面喷施方式会导致上等烟比例下降,且提高了赤星病和角斑病的发病率。随着沼液施用水平的提高,烟叶外观质量和感官质量均呈下降趋势,施用15%~20%水平沼液对外观质量和感官质量均无明显影响。施用沼液对烤后烟叶总糖、还原糖、总氮和蛋白质含量无明显影响,但可在一定程度上提高总植物碱和钾含量。【结论】在延安烟区,在常规施肥基础上,烟叶移栽时宜进行根部穴施20%水平(15 000 kg/hm2)沼液,既不影响烤后烟叶外观质量和感官质量,还能提高烟叶产量和产值,降低病毒病的发病率。
关键词:  烟叶  沼液  施肥方式  施肥量  烟叶品质
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:陕西省烟草公司延安市公司科技项目(YAYC-KJ-2001);中国烟草总公司陕西省公司重点项目(KJ-2018-08)
Effect of application of biogas slurry on leaves and roots on yield and quality of flue cured tobacco leaves
REN Jie,REN Baizhan,GONG Pengfei,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The influence of biogas slurry applied on leaves and roots on yield and quality of Yan’an tobacco was studied to provide basis for applying biogas slurry resources and improving efficiency of tobacco planting.【Method】Yan’an No.1,the main flue cured tobacco variety planted in Yan’an tobacco growing area,was selected for test.The effects of biogas slurry application level (30%,25%,20% and 15% of the original concentration) and method (leaf spraying and root hole application) on economic characters,disease occurrence,appearance quality,chemical composition and sensory quality of leaves were studied.【Result】Biogas slurry application increased the yield and output value of tobacco leaves and inhibited the occurrence of virus disease and weather fleck,while leaf spraying method led to decrease of the proportion of high class leaf and aggravated the incidence of brown spot disease and angular leaf spot of tobacco.With the increase of biogas slurry application level,the appearance quality and sensory quality of tobacco leaves showed a downward trend.Application levels of 15%-20% had no significant effect on appearance quality and sensory quality.Biogas slurry application had no significant effect on contents of total sugar,reducing sugar,total nitrogen and protein in cured tobacco,but increased contents of total plant alkali and potassium slightly.【Conclusion】In Yan’an tobacco area,on the basis of conventional fertilization,application of 15 000 kg/hm2 of 20% biogas slurry to root hole during tobacco transplanting could improve yield and output value of tobacco leaves and reduce incidence of virus diseases without affecting appearance and sensory quality of cured tobacco leaves.
Key words:  tobacco  biogas slurry  fertilization method  fertilization level  tobacco leaf quality