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兰州市6种园林植物叶片形态和光合生理特征
李娟霞1, 田 青1
甘肃农业大学 林学院
摘要:
【目的】探究6种园林植物的叶片形态及光合生理,为兰州市园林植物的筛选和配置提供重要参考。【方法】以兰州市常见的6种园林植物旱柳(Salix matsudana)、紫丁香(Syringa oblata)、木槿(Hibiscus syriacus)、金叶女贞(Ligustrum×vicaryi)、红瑞木(Cornus alba)、月季(Rosa chinensis)为研究对象,采用光合仪测定植物净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、瞬时水分利用效率、胞间CO2浓度的日变化,室内测定植物叶片形态和生理指标,对叶片形态指标与光合指标进行相关性和冗余分析,筛选影响植物光合生理的主要影响因子。【结果】(1)兰州市6种园林植物叶片形态和光合生理均有差异,其中金叶女贞比叶面积最小,叶干物质含量和比叶重均最大,有较强的抗旱和耐阴性;6种植物的净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、瞬时水分利用效率日变化均呈“双峰型”曲线,而胞间CO2浓度随光照的增强呈下降趋势。(2)6种植物叶绿素总含量与净光合速率呈极显著负相关(P<0.01),叶绿素a/叶绿素b与净光合速率呈显著正相关(P<0.05),木槿的叶绿素总含量、叶绿素a/叶绿素b和净光合速率均较大,表明其具有较强的光合能力;6种植物蒸腾速率与瞬时水分利用效率呈负相关(P>0.05),净光合速率与气孔导度、蒸腾速率间呈极显著正相关(P<0.01);6种植物的净光合速率随着气孔导度、蒸腾速率和胞间CO2浓度的增大而增强,表明不同植物间净光合速率的差异是气孔因子引起的。(3)植物叶片形态指标对光合生理指标的影响顺序为:叶干物质含量>比叶面积>叶面积>比叶重>叶片相对含水量,叶干物质含量是植物生态适应性和获取资源的主导因子。【结论】在兰州市实际园林生产应用中,光照充足的环境可考虑种植旱柳和红瑞木,干旱或潮湿的背阴处可优先考虑种植金叶女贞,光照一般的环境可考虑种植紫丁香和月季,光照较弱的环境可优先考虑种植木槿。
关键词:  园林植物;叶片形态;光合生理  兰州市
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:甘肃省科技厅重点研发项目(18YF1FA079)
Leaf morphology and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of six garden plants in Lanzhou
LI Juanxia,TIAN Qing
Abstract:
【Objective】The leaf morphology and photosynthetic physiology of six garden plants were studied to provide reference for selection and configuration of garden plants in Lanzhou.【Method】Six common garden plants in Lanzhou including Salix matsudana,Syringa oblata,Hibiscus syriacus,Ligustrum×vicaryi,Cornus alba and Rosa chinensis were selected as the research objects.The diurnal variation of photosynthetic parameters such as net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate,instantaneous water use efficiency and intercellular CO2 concentration were measured by photosynthetic apparatus.The morphological and physiological indexes of plant leaves were measured in laboratory.Correlation and redundancy analysis leaf morphological indexes and photosynthetic indexes were carried out to screen main influencing factors of plant photosynthetic physiology.【Result】(1) Leaf morphology and photosynthetic physiology of six garden plants in Lanzhou were different.Among them,Ligustrum×vicaryi had the smallest specific leaf area,the largest leaf dry matter content and specific leaf weight.Thus,it had strong drought resistance and shade tolerance and was more conducive to survival.The diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate,and instantaneous water use efficiency of the six plants all showed a “bimodal” curve,while intercellular CO2 concentration decreased with the increase of light.(2) Total chlorophyll content of the six plants had significantly negative correlation with net photosynthetic rate (P<0.01),and chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b had significantly positive correlation with net photosynthetic rate (P<0.05).Total chlorophyll content,chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b and net photosynthetic rate of Hibiscus syriacus were higher than other,indicating higher photosynthetic capacity.There was a negative correlation between transpiration rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (P>0.05),and a significant positive correlation between net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance and transpiration rate (P<0.01).The net photosynthetic rates of the six plants increased with the increase of stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration,indicating that the difference in net photosynthetic rate among different plants was caused by stomatal factors.(3) The effects of leaf morphological indexes on photosynthetic physiological indexes were in the order of leaf dry matter content>specific leaf area>leaf area>specific leaf weight>leaf relative water content.Leaf dry matter content was the main factor of plant ecological adaptability and resource acquisition.【Conclusion】In the actual garden application in Lanzhou,Salix matsudana and Cornus alba can be planted in the environment with sufficient sunlight,Ligustrum×vicaryi can be planted in dry or humid shade,Syringa oblata and Rosa chinensis can be planted in the environment with general sunlight,while Hibiscus syriacus can be planted in the environment with weak light.
Key words:  garden plants  leaf morphology  photosynthetic physiology  Lanzhou