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不同恢复年限对川南丘陵区竹林地土壤质量的影响
刘 淼1, 蔡春菊1, 范少辉,等1
国际竹藤中心 竹藤科学与技术重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】研究川南丘陵区不同恢复年限竹林地土壤质量的变化,综合评价退耕还竹林对土壤质量的影响,为川南地区的竹林生态修复提供支持。【方法】以四川省长宁县不同恢复年限(5,10年)的硬头黄竹林地为研究对象,以非退耕竹林地为对照,测定了林地不同土层(0~20,20~40,40~60 cm)土壤物理性质(土壤体积质量、最大持水量、毛管持水量、田间持水量、总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度)和化学性质(pH、有机质含量、全氮含量、碱解氮含量、全磷含量、速效磷含量、全钾含量、有效钾含量、交换性Ca含量、交换性Mg含量);并运用主成分分析、加权综合指数法和模糊数学法,对不同恢复年限硬头黄竹林地的土壤质量进行了综合评价。【结果】在同一土层下,随着恢复年限的延长,土壤体积质量和非毛管孔隙度呈现先减小后增大的趋势,土壤田间持水量、最大持水量、毛管持水量呈现先增加后减少的趋势,土壤毛管孔隙度和总孔隙度总体减小;土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮、全磷、全钾、交换性Ca和Mg含量呈现先升高后降低的趋势,土壤速效磷含量呈现先降低后升高的趋势,土壤有效钾含量则降低。同一恢复年限下,随着土层深度的增加,土壤体积质量逐渐增加,田间持水量和土壤化学性质(pH、全钾除外)逐渐降低。土壤质量综合指数随着恢复年限的延长呈现先升高后降低的趋势,恢复5年硬头黄竹林土壤质量综合指数最高;在同一恢复年限下,土壤质量综合指数均随土层深度的增加而降低。【结论】不同恢复年限对川南地区竹林地土壤质量影响明显。恢复还林初期(5年),土壤质量综合指数上升明显;恢复还林后10 年,对土壤的改善作用不明显。
关键词:  硬头黄竹  恢复年限  土壤质量  川南丘陵区
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家“十三五”重点研发计划项目“竹林立体复合高值化经营技术”(2018YFD0600105)
Effects of different restoration years on soil quality of Bambusa rigida plantations in southern Sichuan
LIU Miao,CAI Chunju,FAN Shaohui,ete al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated changes of soil quality of bamboo forests with different restoration years in the hilly area of southern Sichuan and comprehensively evaluated the effect of returning farmlands to bamboo forests on soil quality to provide support for ecological restoration of bamboo forests in southern Sichuan.【Method】In Changning,Sichuan,the Bambusa rigida plantations with different restoration years (5 and 10 years) were studied using bamboo forestland without returning farmland as control.Using field investigation and laboratory analysis,seventeen soil biological indices including soil physical properties (soil bulk density,maximum water holding capacity,capillary water holding capacity,capillary porosity,field water holding capacity,total porosity and non capillary porosity) and chemical properties (pH,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen,exchangeable magnesium,exchangeable calcium,total nitrogen,total potassium,total phosphorus,rapidly available phosphorus,organic matter and available potassium) were measured.Principal component analysis,weighted synthesis and fuzzy mathematics were used to evaluate soil quality of Bambusa rigida plantations with different restoration years.【Result】At same soil layers,soil bulk density and non capillary porosity first decreased and then increased with the extension of restoration years,field water capacity,maximum water capacity and capillary water capacity first increased and then decreased,while capillary porosity and total porosity decreased continuously.Contents of organic matter,total nitrogen,alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen,total phosphorus,total potassium,exchangeable Ca and Mg firstly increased and then decreased,content of available phosphorus firstly decreased and then increased,while content of available potassium decreased all the time.At same restoration years,soil bulk density increased gradually with the increase of soil depth,while field water capacity and soil chemical properties (except pH and total potassium)decreased gradually.With the extension of restoration years,the comprehensive index of soil quality increased at first and then decreased with peak values at 5 years.Under same restoration period,soil quality index decreased with the increase of soil depth.【Conclusion】Different restoration years had significant effects on soil quality of Bambusa rigida plantations in southern Sichuan.At early stage of restoration (5 years),comprehensive index of soil quality increased obviously.After 10 years of restoration,soil improvement was minor.Thus,it is necessary to carry out artificial management for Bambusa rigida forests 10 years after restoration to better utilize their ecological function and improve ecological environment.
Key words:  Bambusa rigida  recovery time  soil quality  southern Sichuan