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基于水肥一体化的苹果减肥施肥技术优化
张天皓, 陶 茹, 樊淼淼,等
西北农林科技大学 园艺学院
摘要:
【目的】筛选渭北旱塬苹果水肥一体化模式下化肥的最佳施用量,为苹果园精准化管理提供技术参考。【方法】以5年生矮化结果树‘玉华早富’苹果品种为试材,设置6个施肥处理:常规施肥模式(CT),全年施用1.16 kg/株化肥,不施用有机肥,不灌水;双减模式(SJ),全年施用0.92 kg/株化肥和20 kg/株有机肥,不灌水;水肥一体化模式WF1~WF4,全年分别施用0.92,0.78,0.66,0.56 kg/株化肥,施用有机肥和灌水量均相同,分别为20 kg/株和0.12 m3/株,测定不同处理苹果产量、单果质量、果实商品率、肥料偏生产力、果实品质及挥发性物质种类及其总含量等指标。采用主观层次分析法、客观熵权法对各单一指标赋权,再利用基于博弈论的组合赋权法计算各指标最终权重,然后用近似理想解(TOPSIS)法计算苹果综合评价值,建立评价苹果综合指标的数学模型,分析水肥一体化模式下不同化肥施用量对苹果综合评价值的影响。【结果】与CT相比,SJ处理苹果单果质量、产量、果实商品率虽有增加,但二者差异均不显著,而肥料偏生产力显著提高;WF1~WF4处理苹果单果质量、果实商品率、肥料偏生产力均明显增加,WF2、WF3处理苹果产量均增加,而WF1、WF4处理苹果产量均降低。与CT相比,WF1~WF4处理果实Vc、可溶性总糖、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸含量和固酸比、硬度及果皮花青苷含量总体无显著变化;挥发性物质种类总体也无显著变化,但其总含量除WF2处理外其余均显著下降。根据TOPSIS法确定的不同施肥处理的苹果综合评价值由高到低为WF2>WF3>WF4>SJ>WF1>CT。通过综合评价寻优,当化肥施用量为0.73 kg/株时,苹果综合评价值最高,达到了0.72,可知在与CT和SJ处理相比化肥施用量减少37.07%和20.65%的情况下,能提高苹果的综合评价值。【结论】渭北旱塬地区水肥一体化模式下化肥最佳施用量为0.73 kg/株,其中N 0.28 kg/株,P2O5 0.14 kg/株,K2O 0.31 kg/株,氮、磷、钾肥按照2∶1∶2.2的质量比施用,此条件下苹果综合表现最优。
关键词:  苹果栽培  水肥一体化  施肥量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201131);陕西省科技重大专项(S2020-ZDZX-PGZX-0007);国家现代苹果产业技术体系项目(CARS-27)
Optimization of integrated fertilization of water and fertilizer based on increasing production and efficiency of apple
ZHANG Tianhao, TAO Ru, FAN Miaomiao,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The optimal application amount of chemical fertilizers under integrated mode of water and fertilizer for apples in the Weibei Dryland was screened to provide references for precise management of apple orchards.【Method】Using 5-year-old dwarfing variety of ‘Yuhuazaofu’ as the test material, this experiment had 6 fertilization treatments:conventional fertilization mode (CT) with 1.16 kg/plant of chemical fertilizer throughout the year,no organic fertilizer and no irrigation;double reduction model (SJ) with 0.92 kg/plant of chemical fertilizer and 20 kg/plant of organic fertilizer throughout the year but without irrigation;and water and fertilizer integrated treatments of WF1-WF4.In WF1-WF4,chemical fertilizer was applied annually with amounts of 0.92,0.78,0.66 and 0.56 kg/plant,while organic fertilizer and irrigation were the same of 20 kg/plant and 0.12 m3/plant,respectively.Yield,individual fruit quality,fruit commodity rate,fertilizer partial productivity,fruit quality,as well as types and total content of volatile matter were measured.Subjective analytic hierarchy process and objective entropy method were applied to weight each single indicator,and then the combination weighting method based on game theory was used to calculate the final weight of each indicator.The approximate ideal solution method was used to calculate the comprehensive evaluation value of apples and the comprehensive evaluation model was established.The influence of fertilizer application rates on comprehensive evaluation value of apples under the water fertilizer integration mode was also analyzed.【Result】Compared with CT,SJ treatment increased the quality,yield and fruit commodity rate of apples without significant difference,while the partial productivity of fertilizer was significantly improved.Fruit quality,fruit commodity rate and fertilizer partial productivity were significantly increased in WF1-WF4 treatments.The apple yields increased in WF2 and WF3 treatments but decreased in WF1 and WF4 treatments.Compared with CT,there were no significant changes in Vc,total soluble sugar,soluble solids,titratable acid content,solid to acid ratio,hardness and anthocyanin content of fruit skin in WF1-WF4 treatments.The types of volatile substances had no significant changes,but their total content decreased significantly except for WF2 treatment.According to the TOPSIS method,the comprehensive evaluation values of apples were in the order of WF2>WF3>WF4>SJ>WF1>CT.Through comprehensive evaluation and optimization,the highest comprehensive evaluation value of 0.72 was obtained when fertilizer application rate was 0.73 kg/plant,indicating that overall quality of apply was improved when fertilizer application rates were reduced.【Conclusion】The optimal application rate of chemical fertilizer under the integrated water and fertilizer mode in the Weibei Dryland was 0.73 kg/plant with N 0.28 kg/plant,P2O5 0.14 kg/plant and K2O 0.31 kg/plant.The mass ratio of nitrogen,phosphorus,and potassium was 2∶1∶2.2.
Key words:  apple cultivation  integration of water and fertilizer  fertilizer application