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土壤含水量对温室甜瓜生长、产量及品质的影响
郜 森, 王恩煜, 朱昌伟,等
西北农林科技大学 园艺学院
摘要:
【目的】研究在日光温室秋季滴灌栽培条件下,土壤不同含水量对厚皮甜瓜生长、产量及品质的影响,筛选适宜的土壤水分处理。【方法】以厚皮甜瓜品种“农大甜6号”为材料,在甜瓜全生育期内,设置6个土壤水分处理,其灌水下限、上限分别为土壤田间持水量的65%~80%(T1)、65%~90%(T2)、65%~100%(T3)、75%~80%(T4)、75%~90%(T5)和75%~100%(T6),探究土壤不同水分处理对温室甜瓜株高、茎粗、果实形态、产量、品质及灌溉水分利用效率的影响,并采用隶属函数法,基于果实品质指标对各水分处理进行综合评价。【结果】除伸蔓期外,不同水分处理对开花坐果期、果实膨大期和成熟期温室甜瓜株高与茎粗均有显著影响;不同水分处理除对果实纵径、果形指数和灌溉水分利用效率影响不显著外,对果实横径、果肉厚度、单瓜质量和可溶性总糖、VC、还原糖、可溶性蛋白、可溶性固形物含量均影响显著。除VC含量外,灌水下限相同时,上述指标随着灌水上限的提高而增加;灌水上限相同时,上述指标在灌水下限为田间持水量65%处理中的表现整体优于灌水下限为田间持水量75%的处理。综合考虑可溶性总糖、VC、还原糖、可溶性蛋白、可溶性固形物含量5个果实品质指标的表现,不同水分处理对甜瓜品质影响的隶属函数值排序为T3(4.85)>T6(3.00)>T2(1.95)>T5(1.82)>T4(1.26)>T1(1.20),且以T3处理果实产量与综合品质最高。【结论】陕西关中地区温室厚皮甜瓜在秋季全生育期植株生长过程中,最适宜的土壤含水量为田间持水量的65%~100%,在此条件下甜瓜各项指标表现均较好。
关键词:  土壤含水量;厚皮甜瓜;果实产量  果实品质;水分利用效率;隶属函数值
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:陕西省重点研发计划项目(2019ZDLNY03-03);国家西甜瓜产业技术体系项目(CARS-25);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0100704)
Effects of soil moisture contents on growth,yield and quality of melon in greenhouse
GAO Sen, WANG Enyu, ZHU Changwei,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the effects of different soil moisture contents on growth,yield and quality of greenhouse melon under drip irrigation cultivation in autumn to screen suitable soil moisture treatments.【Method】The melon variety of ‘Nongdatian 6’ was treated with six different soil water contents during the whole growth period.The treatments had lower and upper limits of 65%-80%(T1),65%-90%(T2),65%-100%(T3),75%-80%(T4),75%-90%(T5) and 75%-100%(T6) of field capacity,respectively.Then the effects of different soil water treatments on plant height,stem thickness,fruit morphology,yield,quality and water use efficiency of greenhouse melon were analyzed.Using the subordinate function value method,comprehensive evaluation of each water treatment was conducted based on fruit quality indicators.【Result】Except for the sprout stage,different water treatments had significant effects on plant height and stem thickness of greenhouse melon during the flowering stage,the fruit expanding stage and the mature period.Different water treatments had no significant effects on fruit longitudinal diameter,fruit shape index and irrigation water use efficiency,but had significant effects on horizontal diameter,flesh thickness,quality of single melon as well as contents of soluble total sugar,VC,reducing sugar,soluble protein and soluble solid.Except for VC content,above indicators increased with the increase of irrigation upper limit when lower limit was fixed.When upper limit was fixed,above indicators performed better in 65% treatment than in 75% treatment.Considering the performance of five fruit quality indicators including contents of total soluble sugar,VC,reducing sugar,soluble protein,and soluble solid,the subordinate function values were in the order of T3(4.85)>T6(3.00)>T2(1.95)>T5(1.82)>T4(1.26)>T1(1.20).Fruits in T3 treatment had the best yield and comprehensive quality.【Conclusion】The treatment with soil moisture lower limit of 65% and upper limit of 100% was the most suitable for plant growth during the whole growth period of greenhouse melon in Guanzhong,Shaanxi.
Key words:  soil moisture content  melon  fruit yield  fruit quality  water use efficiency  subordinate function value