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图们江大麻哈鱼的个体繁殖力研究
李培伦, 王继隆, 鲁万桥,等
中国水产科学研究院 黑龙江水产研究所
摘要:
【目的】研究图们江大麻哈鱼的个体繁殖力,为大麻哈鱼资源管理及增殖保护提供科学参考。【方法】2020年10月中上旬,在图们江珲春段随机选取114尾性腺成熟度介于Ⅳ~Ⅴ期的雌性大麻哈鱼,采用称质量法统计繁殖力,包括年龄、叉长、体质量、净体质量、肝质量、卵巢质量、性成熟系数、肝质量系数和肥满度等生物学指标,并分析个体繁殖力与各项生物学指标之间的关系。【结果】图们江大麻哈鱼114尾雌性样本由2+~5+龄4个龄组组成,其中4+、5+龄个体偏少,仅占29.83%,叉长与体质量呈线性相关;3+龄组个体对种群繁殖贡献率最大,为42.97%;个体绝对繁殖力为1 061.52~5 028.29粒,平均2 920.12粒;叉长相对繁殖力为17.75~74.60粒/cm,平均45.72粒/cm;体质量相对繁殖力为0.46~1.47粒/g,平均1.08粒/g。个体绝对繁殖力、叉长相对繁殖力与年龄、叉长、体质量、肥满度的最佳拟合方程均为二次函数,与卵巢质量、性成熟系数拟合度最好的方程为幂函数,而体质量相对繁殖力与肝质量和性成熟系数拟合度最好的为幂函数,与卵巢质量拟合度最好的为对数函数。多元线性逐步回归分析表明,图们江大麻哈鱼个体绝对繁殖力、叉长相对繁殖力、体质量相对繁殖力受卵巢质量和年龄的影响较大。图们江大麻哈鱼个体繁殖力低于乌苏里江、黑龙江和绥芬河群体。【结论】图们江大麻哈鱼中4+、5+龄个体偏少,种群低龄化现象严重,应重视和加强其种群资源的管理和保护工作;在实际调研中可用年龄、卵巢质量与绝对繁殖力之间的关系来快速估算图们江大麻哈鱼的种群繁殖力。
关键词:  图们江  大麻哈鱼  繁殖力  资源保护
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:科技部国家科技基础资源调查专项“图们江流域资源环境与生物多样性综合科学考察”(2019FY101700);农业农村部财政专项物种资源保护项目“大麻哈鱼栖息地调查及标志放流效果评估”(2010-2020)
Fecundity of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in the Tumen River
LI Peilun, WANG Jilong, LU Wanqiao,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The fecundity of chum salmon in the Tumen River was studied to provide scientific reference for resource management and sustainable use.【Method】In early to middle October 2020,114 female chum salmon samples with ovaries at stage Ⅳ or Ⅴ were collected without selectivity from Hunchun section of the Tumen River.The fecundity was determined using the weighting method,biological indicators such as age,fork length,body weight,net body weight,liver weight,ovary weight,gonado somatic index,liver somatic index and relative fatness were measured,and relationships between individual fecundity and biological indicators were analyzed.【Result】The ages of 114 female chum salmons in the Tumen River were 2+-5+ years,and those at 4+ and 5+ ages accounted for 29.83%.Chum salmons in the age group 3+ contributed the most to the reproduction of the population,with a contribution of 42.97%.There was a linear correlation between fork length and body weight,and individual absolute fecundity was 1 061.52-5 028.29 eggs with average of 2 920.12 eggs.Relative fecundity per centimeter was 17.75-74.60 eggs/cm with average of 45.72 eggs/cm,and relative fecundity per gram was 0.46-1.47 eggs/g with average of 1.08 eggs/g.Quadratic functions were the best for fitting absolute fecundity and relative fecundity per centimeter to age,fork length,body weight and relative fatness,and power functions were the best to ovary weight and gonado somatic index.Power functions were the best for fitting relative fecundity per gram with liver weight and gonado somatic index,while logarithmic function was the best to ovarian weight.A multiple regression analysis revealed that individual absolute fecundity,relative fecundity per centimeter and relative fecundity per gram were significantly influenced by ovarian weight and age,and the individual fecundity of chum salmon in the Tumen River was lower than the populations in the Wusuli River,Heilongjiang River and Suifen River.【Conclusion】The chum salmon individuals at ages of 4+ and 5+ were less in number,and the population was severely under-aged.Management and conservation of the population resources should be emphasized and strengthened.In actual research process,the relationship of absolute fecundity with gonado somatic index and age could be used to estimate population reproductive potential of chum salmon in Tumen River.
Key words:  Tumen River  chum salmon  fecundity  resource conservation