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美味猕猴桃新品种‘瑞玉’果实品质综合评价
王 依1,2, 雷 靖1,2, 陈 成,等3
1.陕西省农村科技开发中心;2.陕西省猕猴桃工程技术研究中心;3.江苏丘陵地区镇江农业科学研究所
摘要:
【目的】对猕猴桃新品种‘瑞玉’与11个美味猕猴桃品种的果实品质进行比较分析,以评价新品种‘瑞玉’的综合品质。【方法】以西安猕猴桃试验站种质资源圃的新品种‘瑞玉’及其他11个美味猕猴桃品种为试材,在果实达到成熟期测其单果质量和果形指数,可食条件下测其硬度及可溶性固形物、干物质、可滴定酸、可溶性糖、维生素C含量,采用方差分析、相关性分析及主成分分析对果实品质进行综合评价。【结果】与其他11个猕猴桃品种相比,‘瑞玉’的单果质量和可滴定酸含量最低,分别为81.11 g和0.83%;果形指数和维生素C含量居中,分别为1.42和83.53 mg/hg;干物质、可溶性固形物、可溶性糖含量及糖酸比最高,分别为24.50%,21.28%,12.09%和14.53。可溶性固形物含量与干物质和可溶性糖含量呈极显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.949和0.868;可溶性糖含量与干物质和维生素C含量呈极显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.900和0.841;可滴定酸含量与维生素C含量呈极显著负相关,相关系数为-0.739。主成分分析提取出3个主成分,主成分1所携带的信息主要是干物质含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、糖酸比、可滴定酸含量;主成分2所携带的信息主要是维生素C含量和果形指数;主成分3所携带的信息主要是单果质量和硬度。【结论】新品种‘瑞玉’的干物质、可溶性固形物、可溶性糖含量及糖酸比显著高于其他几个品种,且综合品质较高;主成分分析显示,12个猕猴桃品种品质优劣的顺序依次为‘金魁’、‘翠香’、‘瑞玉’、‘海艳’、‘哑特’、‘徐香’、‘晨光’、‘贵长’、‘秦美’、‘秋明’、‘海沃德’和‘米良一号’。
关键词:  美味猕猴桃  果实品质  综合评价  主成分分析
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基金项目:国家国际科技合作专项(2015DFA30400);“十二五”农村领域国家科技计划项目(2014BAD16B00)
Comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality of a new delicious kiwifruit variety ‘Ruiyu’
WANG Yi,LEI Jing,CHEN Cheng,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】Comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality of ‘Ruiyu’ was conducted by comparing with other eleven delicious kiwifruit varieties.【Method】Kiwifruit trees for testing were from the germplasm nursery of Xi’an kiwifruit test station.Fruit weight and fruit shape index were measured after natural softening at room temperature.Fruit firmness,soluble solid content,dry matter,titratable acid,soluble sugar content and vitamin C content were determined when the fruit was ripen.Then,variance analysis,correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate fruit quality.【Result】Compared with other eleven delicious kiwifruit varieties,the single fruit weight and titratable acid content of ‘Ruiyu’ were the lowest of 81.11 g and 0.83%,fruit shape index and vitamin C content were in the medium range of 1.42 and 83.53 mg/hg,and dry matter,soluble solids content,soluble sugar content and sugar acid ratio were the highest of 24.50%,21.28%,12.09% and 14.53,respectively.There were significant positive correlations between soluble solids content and dry matter,soluble sugar content with correlation coefficients of 0.949 and 0.868,respectively.Besides,there were significant positive correlations between soluble sugar content and dry matter,vitamin C with correlation coefficients of 0.900 and 0.841,respectively.There was a significant negative correlation between titratable acid and vitamin C with correlation coefficient of -0.739.Three principal components were extracted by the principal component analysis.The main component 1 carried the information by dry matter,soluble solid content,soluble sugar content, sugar acid ratio and titratable acid.The main component 2 carried the information by vitamin C and fruit shape index.The main component 3 carried the information by fruit weight and fruit firmness.【Conclusion】Dry matter,soluble solid content,soluble sugar content and sugar acid ratio of ‘Ruiyu’ were significantly higher than other several varieties,and the comprehensive quality was better.Through principal component analysis,the twelve delicious kiwifruit varieties were in the decreasing order of ‘Jinkui’,‘Cuixiang’,‘Ruiyu’,‘Haiyan’,‘Yate’,‘Xuxiang’,‘Chenguang’,‘Guichang’,‘Qinmei’,‘Qiuming’,‘Hayward’,‘Miliang 1’.
Key words:  delicious kiwifruit  fruit quality  comprehensive evaluation  principal component analysis