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松干流域不同种植模式对坡耕地土壤氮磷流失的影响
杨世琦1,2, 邢 磊1,2, 刘宏元,等1,2
1.中国农业科学院 农业环境与可持续发展研究所;2.农业部 农业环境与气候变化重点开放实验室
摘要:
【目的】研究不同种植模式下松干流域土壤氮磷流失特征,为该流域坡耕地氮磷流失控制提供科学依据。【方法】选择玉米+秸秆无还田+顺垄(CK)、玉米+秸秆立茬还田+横垄(CSSC)、玉米+秸秆粉碎还田+横垄(CSC)、大豆+秸秆粉碎还田+横垄(SSC)与苜蓿+粉碎还田+横垄(ASC)5种模式,通过多年(2014-2016年)大田定位试验,采用坡耕地径流实验装置,开展土壤氮磷流失比较研究。【结果】不同种植模式下坡耕地土壤氮磷流失的差异较大,与玉米(CSC)相比,大豆(SSC)与苜蓿(ASC)水土保持效果更好,土壤流失量减少了19.2%~26.7%,土壤氮流失负荷减少22.9%~31.3%,土壤磷流失负荷减少18.9%~32.4%,径流量减少4.8%~18.4%。玉米立茬还田和粉碎还田与对照相比,土壤流失量减少了37.9%~59.6%,径流量减少了42.4%~57.3%。横垄耕作和顺垄种植相比,水土流失量减少了42.4%~76.8%。坡耕地土壤流失量为190.63~1106.25 kg/hm2,径流量为23.22~106.59 t/hm2;土壤氮流失负荷为0.33~2.46 kg/hm2,土壤磷流失负荷0.13~0.91 kg/hm2;径流氮流失负荷为9.24~41.46 g/hm2,径流磷流失负荷为0.84~7.46 g/hm2。【结论】松干流域坡耕地采用玉米、大豆、苜蓿横垄种植模式均能有效减少土壤氮磷流失;坡耕地氮磷流失主要体现为土壤氮磷流失,径流的氮磷流失量很小,几乎可忽略。
关键词:  种植模式  坡耕地  土壤流失  松干流域
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2014ZX07201-009)
Effect of planting patterns on soil nitrogen and phosphorus loss in slope farmland in the main Songhua river basin
YANG Shiqi,XING Lei,LIU Hongyuan,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The soil nitrogen and phosphorus losses characteristics under different planting patterns were investigated to provide basis for soil and water erosion control in slope farmland in main Songhua river basin.【Method】Five planting patterns including corn+no straw application+longitudinal ridge (CNL-CK),corn+stubble standing+cross ridge (CSSC),corn+straw application+cross ridge (CSC),soybean+straw application+cross ridge (SSC) and alfalfa+straw application+cross ridge (ASC) were conducted using slope farmland runoff experimental apparatus based on field tests during 2014-2016.【Result】Effects of planting patterns on soil nitrogen and phosphorus losses in slope farmland were different.Compared with CSC,soybean (SSC) and alfalfa (ASC) had better soil and water conservation effects,with the decreases of 19.2%-26.7% for soil loss,22.9%-31.3% for soil nitrogen loss load,8.9%-32.4% for soil phosphorus loss load,and 4.8%-18.4% for runoff.Compared with CK,soil losses of CSSC and CSC decreased by 37.9%-59.6%,and runoff decreased by 42.4%-57.3%.Compared with longitudinal ridge,cross ridge decreased water and soil loss by 42.4%-76.8%.The soil loss was 190.63-1106.25 kg/hm2 in slope farmland,runoff was 23.22-106.59 t/hm2,soil nitrogen loss load was 0.33-2.46 kg/hm2,soil phosphorus loss load was 0.31-0.91 kg/hm2,nitrogen loss load from runoff was 9.24-41.46 g/hm2,and phosphorus loss load from runoff was 0.84-7.46 g/hm2.【Conclusion】In the main Songhua river basin,CSC,SSC and ASC all could decrease soil nitrogen and phosphorus erosion in slope farmland.Nitrogen and phosphorus losses were mainly from soil and those from runoff can be ignored.
Key words:  planting pattern  slope farmland  soil loss  the main Songhua river basin