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滇东南典型岩溶湖滨湿地水体-沉积物-植物总磷分布特征
詹乃才1, 王 妍1,2, 刘云根,等1,2
1.西南林业大学 环境科学与工程学院;2.农村污水处理研究所
摘要:
【目的】探讨农业面源污染下岩溶湖滨湿地“水体-植物-沉积物”体系中总磷(TP)的时空分异特征,以期为岩溶湖泊流域的生态环境保护提供理论依据和技术支撑。【方法】以滇东南岩溶湿地为研究对象,在普者黑湖滨湿地设置典型样地,采用典型样带法布点方式,在研究区布设3条平行样带(编号Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ),每条样带上等距布设不同采样点,于2014年10月和2015年1,4,7月采集研究区不同样点对应的水体、沉积物及茭草茎、叶,测定水体总磷(TP)质量浓度和沉积物及植物样品TP含量,并分析其时空分异特征。【结果】水体TP质量浓度表现为4月>1月>10月>7月,1,4和10月份水体TP质量浓度沿湖岸辐射区-湖滨湿地区-湖心辐射区方向呈现明显递减趋势;而7月份水体TP质量浓度较小,无明显变化规律。表层(0~5 cm)沉积物TP含量表现为10月>4月>1月>7月,秋、春季沉积物TP污染较冬、夏季严重,各季节沉积物TP含量沿湖岸辐射区-湖心辐射区间总体均呈现递减的变化规律;在垂向分布上,随深度的增加,沉积物TP含量总体呈现递减趋势,且表层沉积物TP含量与中层(5~10 cm)、底层(10~15 cm)均呈显著差异(P<0.05)。茭草茎、叶TP含量均表现为4、7月份高于10、1月份,叶TP含量高于茎,且茭草的茎、叶分别与中层、底层沉积物TP含量呈现极显著相关性(P<0.01),但其沿湖岸辐射区-湖心辐射区间无明显变化。【结论】普者黑岩溶湖滨湿地水体TP质量浓度和沉积物与植物TP含量均表现出明显的时空分异性,且湖滨湿地对外源磷具有良好的截留作用。
关键词:  岩溶湖滨湿地  时空分异  总磷  截留作用  滇东南
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“基于熵突变理论的滇东南典型岩溶湿地生态脆弱性演变研究”(31560237)、“普者黑岩溶湖滨湿地磷的垂向迁移转化及动态模拟研究”(51469030);云南省应用基础面上项目“高原生态河流廊道对水体污染净化功能研究”(2009ZC083M);云南省教育厅研究生项目“普者黑岩溶湖滨湿地沉积物磷的空间分布特征研究”(515006046)
Distribution characteristics of total phosphorous in water-sediment-vegetable system of typical karst lakeside wetland in Southeast Yunnan
ZHAN Naicai,WANG Yan,LIU Yungen,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of total phosphorous in water,sediments and vegetable of typical karst wetlands under agricultural non point source pollution to provide theoretical basis and technical support for karst ecological environment protection.【Method】The Puzhehei karst wetland,located in Southeast Yunnan,was selected as the research area and sample plots were setup with the typical transect method.Three parallel transects (Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ) were arranged in the study area with different sampling points.Samples were collected from water bodies,sediments,stems and leaves of Zizania latifolia in the study area in October 2014 and January,April,July 2015.The total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were then determined and the temporal and spatial differentiation characteristics were analyzed.【Result】The water TP concentrations were in the order of April>January>October>July without significant difference.The TP concentrations in October,April and January showed a decreasing trend from the lakeshore radiation zone to the lake center radiation zone,whereas that in July had no significant variation.The TP contents in surface sediments (0-5 cm) were in the order of October>April>January>July.The concentrations in spring and autumn were higher than in summer and winter.In all seasons,TP contents showed a decreasing trend from the lakeshore radiation zone to the lake center radiation zone.With the increase of depth,the sediment TP contents showed a decreasing trend with significant difference between intermediate sediments (5-10 cm) and bottom sediments (10-15 cm) (P<0.05).The concentrations of TP in Zizania latifolia stem and leaf in April and January were higher than in October and January.The TP contents in leaf were higher than in stem.The stem and leaf of Zizania latifolia showed extremely significant correlation with the intermediate sediments and bottom sediments (P<0.01),but no significant spatial variation.【Conclusion】The TP concentrations in water,sediments and vegetables showed significant temporal and spatial distribution differences in the Puzhehei karst lakeside wetland,and the karst wetland showed good interception effect on exogenous phosphorus.
Key words:  karst lakeside wetland  temporal and spatial characteristics  total phosphorous  interception effect  Southeast Yunnan