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35~60 kg圩猪能量需要量研究
张民扬,唐 倩,许 翔,等
作者单位
张民扬 安徽农业大学 动物科技学院 
唐 倩 安徽农业大学 动物科技学院 
许 翔,等 安徽农业大学 动物科技学院 
摘要:
【目的】确定35~60 kg圩猪(阉公猪)维持和生长的净能与代谢能需要量参数,为安徽地方品种猪圩猪的科学饲养提供理论依据。【方法】选用30头平均体质量为(33.47±1.68) kg的健康圩猪(阉公猪)进行比较屠宰试验,于试验开始时随机屠宰6头,用以估测圩猪的初始体成分及能值,其余24头随机分为100%自由采食组(12头)、70%自由采食组(6头)和35%自由采食组(6头);当自由采食组12头猪的平均体质量达到约45 kg时随机屠宰6头,完成中期屠宰;在自由采食组圩猪平均体质量约为60 kg时全部屠宰完毕,完成末期屠宰。屠后分别收集每头猪的血+内脏、毛、骨骼、肌肉、脂肪和皮6个样品,每个样品采样500 g左右。使用冷冻干燥法测定组织样品的干物质含量,制成风干样后测定各个样品的能量、蛋白质、脂肪和灰分,从而估算整头猪的营养成分含量和能量。消化代谢试验选用12头平均体质量达到(45.81±1.02) kg的健康圩猪,将其随机分为3个试验组,每组4头,饲喂饲粮和水平与比较屠宰试验相同,使用全收粪法收集粪、尿,测定粪中的干物质、氮、能值及尿液中的氮和能值。根据上述试验结果,通过建立一系列能量需要的析因模型,确定生长期圩猪(阉公猪)的能量需要参数。【结果】圩猪(阉公猪)生长期的维持净能为344.35 kJ/(kg EBW0.75·d),或334.20 kJ/(kg BW0.75·d),维持代谢能需要量为451.76 kJ/(kg EBW0.75·d),或436.07 kJ/(kg BW0.75·d),代谢能的维持效率为0.762。当日增体质量为300~700 g时,生长净能需要量为5.53~18.83 MJ/d,生长代谢能需要量为9.72~32.22 MJ/d,用于生长的代谢能利用率为0.569。【结论】35~60 kg圩猪(阉公猪)总代谢能需要量高于NRC(1998)推荐值(12.14~29.74 MJ/d)。
关键词:  圩猪  净能  代谢能  能量需要量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家星火计划重点项目(2014GA710002);安徽省生猪产业技术体系项目(2014)
Study on energy requirements of 35-60 kg Wei pig
ZHANG Minyang,TANG Qian,XU Xiang,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The research aimed to define the energy requirements for maintenance and growth of metabolic energy and net energy for 35-60 kg Wei pig (barrow),and to provide a theoretical basis of scientific feeding Anhui local breeds pig-Wei pig.【Method】30 Wei pigs (barrows),weighing (33.47±1.68) kg on average,were used for the comparative slaughter experiment.At the beginning,6 Wei pigs were slaughtered randomly,so as to estimate the initial body composition and energy.The other 24 Wei pigs were randomly allotted to 3 treatments:ad libitum intake (12 pigs),70%(6 pigs) or 35%(6 pigs) of the ad libitum.When the average weight of 12 Wei pigs in ad libitum treatment reached 45 kg,6 pigs were randomly chosen and slaughtered to accomplish mid-slaughter.At the end,all Wei pigs were slaughtered when the average weight of Wei pig in ad libitum treatment reached 60 kg.After slaughter,six samples were collected from each pig and they are blood + organ,hair,bone,muscle,fat and skin sample,respectively.Each sample was sampled about 500 g.Dry matter content of tissue samples were measured by freeze-drying method,and then air dried samples were made to measure their energy,protein,fat and ash content,thus to estimate the nutrient content and energy of the whole pigs.In the digestibility trial,12 Wei pigs weighing (45.81±1.02) kg were randomly allotted into 3 groups,each with 4 pigs. Total collection of feces and urine were conducted. The diets and feeding levels were the same as comparative slaughter experiment.Then the contents of dry matter,nitrogen and energy in faeces and the contents of nitrogen and energy in urine were measured. According to the results above,a series of factorial models for energy requirements were established to obtain parameters of energy requirements for Wei pig(barrow) in growing period.【Result】The results showed that daily net energy for maintenance (NEm) was 344.35 kJ/(kg EBW0.75·d) or 334.20 kJ/(kg BW0.75·d),and the daily metabolizable energy for maintenance(MEm) was 451.76 kJ/(kg EBW0.75·d) or 436.07 kJ/(kg BW0.75·d).The partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km) were 0.762.The net energy requirements for growth ranged from 5.53 to 18.83 MJ/d and the metabolic energy requirements for growth was 9.72 to 32.22 MJ/d,respectively,for Wei pig gaining 300 to 700 g/d from 35 to 60 kg of BW.The partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (kg) was 0.569.【Conclusion】35-60 kg Wei pig (barrow) total metabolizable energy requirement is higher than that of recommended values(12.14-29.74 MJ/d)of NRC (1998) .
Key words:  Wei pig  net energy  metabolic energy  energy requirement