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不同品种辣椒秸秆生物量及饲料营养价值研究
程志泽1, 艾比布拉·伊马木2, 马小龙,等3
1.College of Prataculture,Xinjiang Agricultural University,Urumqi,Xinjiang 830000,China;2.新疆农业大学 草业学院;3.新疆农业科学院 玛纳斯农业试验站
摘要:
【目的】研究辣椒秸秆的生物量和饲料营养价值,为辣椒秸秆合理饲用提供基础数据。【方法】以改良陕早红、灯笼椒和羊角椒3个品种辣椒秸秆为研究对象,对其生物量、结构组成(叶、茎、残留辣椒所占比例)和营养成分(粗蛋白(CP)、中性洗涤纤维(NDF)、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)、可溶性碳水化合物(WSC)、粗脂肪(EE))进行比较分析,并采用康奈尔净碳水化合物-蛋白质体系(CNCPS)和体外产气试验对比分析辣椒秸秆与玉米秸秆的饲用营养价值。【结果】 辣椒秸秆由叶、茎和残留辣椒构成,鲜辣椒秸秆产量最高达39 437.55 kg/hm2;在鲜、干辣椒秸秆结构构成中,茎质量比例最高,平均为50.17%和56.28%,其次是叶(37.51%,30.69%)和残留辣椒(12.32%,13.03%)。辣椒秸秆叶片的CP含量最高,平均为20.11%,其次是残留辣椒(18.67%)和茎(12.11%),全株辣椒秸秆中的CP含量平均值为15.42%,且品种间存在显著差异(P<0.05);3个品种辣椒秸秆中,茎的NDF和ADF含量最高,平均值分别为45.74%和39.52%,残留辣椒的WSC和EE含量最高,平均值分别为11.91%和5.68%;辣椒秸秆叶、茎、残留辣椒和全株均含有辣椒素,3个品种间含量差异显著(P<0.05)。辣椒秸秆的快速降解碳水化合物(CA)、中速降解碳水化合物(CB1)、非结构性碳水化合物(CNSC)、不可利用纤维(CC)以及粗蛋白中非蛋白氮(PA)、快速降解真蛋白质(PB1)含量均显著高于玉米秸秆(P<0.05),而碳水化合物(CHO)、缓慢降解碳水化合物(CB2)、慢速降解真蛋白质(PB3)和不可利用蛋白质(PC)含量显著低于玉米秸秆(P<0.05)。辣椒秸秆理论最大产气量(a)、产气速率常数(c)、DM降解率均高于玉米秸秆,发酵液NH3-N质量浓度低于玉米秸秆,表明辣椒秸秆有较高的饲料营养价值。【结论】辣椒秸秆可全部或部分替换玉米秸秆作为反刍动物的粗饲料。
关键词:  辣椒秸秆  生物量  营养成分  体外产气法
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:新疆自治区重点研发计划项目“新疆地源性生物发酵饲料调配关键技术研究”(2022B02042-2)
Biomass and feed nutritional value of straws from different pepper varieties
CHENG Zhize,AIBIBULA Yimamu,MA Xiaolong,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The biomass and feed nutritional value of pepper straws were studied to provide basic data for reasonable feeding of pepper straw.【Method】The straw biomass,structure composition (ratios of leaves,stems and residual peppers) and nutritional components of crude protein (CP),neutral detergent fiber (NDF),acid detergent fiber (ADF),soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and crude fat (EE) of three pepper varieties including improved Shaanzaohong,Lantern chili and Claw shape chili were compared and analyzed.The feed nutritional value of pepper straw and corn straw was compared and analyzed by Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS) and in vitro gas production test.【Result】Pepper straw was composed of leaves,stems and residual peppers,and the yield of fresh pepper straw was up to 39 437.55 kg/hm2.In the structure composition of fresh and dry pepper straws,the mass proportion of stems was the highest,accounting for 50.17 % and 56.28 % on average,followed by leaves (37.51% and 30.69%) and residual pepper (12.32% and 13.03%).The CP contents of pepper straw leaves was the highest,with the average of 20.11%,followed by residual pepper (18.67%) and stems (12.11%).The average CP content of whole plant pepper straw was 15.42%,and there were significant differences among varieties (P<0.05).Among the three varieties,the NDF and ADF contents of stems were the highest,with the averages of 45.74% and 39.52%,respectively.The WSC and EE contents of residual pepper were the highest,with the averages of 11.91% and 5.68%,respectively.Capsaicin was detected in straw leaves,stems,residual pepper and whole plants,and the contents of capsaicin were significantly different among varieties (P<0.05).The contents of rapidly degradable carbohydrate (CA),moderately degradable carbohydrate (CB1),non-structural carbohydrate (CNSC),unavailable fiber (CC),non-protein nitrogen (PA) and rapidly degradable true protein (PB1) in pepper straw were significantly higher than those in corn straw (P<0.05),while the contents of carbohydrate (CHO),slowly degradable carbohydrate (CB2),slowly degradable true protein (PB3) and unavailable protein (PC) in pepper straw were significantly lower (P<0.05).The theoretical maximum gas production (a),gas production rate constant (c) and DM degradation rate of pepper straw were higher than those of corn straw,and the content of NH3-N in fermentation broth was lower than that of corn straw.The pepper straw had higher feed nutritional value.【Conclusion】Pepper straw could completely or partially replace corn straw as roughage to feed ruminants.
Key words:  pepper straw  biomass  nutrient composition  in vitro gas production method