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栾树凋落叶对3种中药材种子萌发及幼苗生长的化感效应
阮坤非1,2, 王天琪1,2, 侯立娜,等1,2
1.林木育种与生态修复国家工程研究中心;2.北京林业大学 生物科学与技术学院
摘要:
【目的】探究栾树凋落叶对不同中药材的化感效应,选择适宜种植在栾树林下的药用植物,为林药复合种植系统中栾树林下中药材的选择和北京林下经济的发展提供理论参考。【方法】模拟自然环境下栾树凋落叶释放化感物质影响中药材种子萌发和幼苗生长的过程,采用发芽试验和盆栽试验,以蒸馏水为对照(CK),探讨不同质量浓度(6.25,12.5,25,50 g/L)栾树凋落叶浸提液对黄芩、桔梗和甘草3种中药材种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响。【结果】①与CK相比,不同质量浓度栾树凋落叶浸提液对3种中药材种子的发芽率、发芽指数和幼苗胚根长、胚芽长及幼苗鲜质量和干质量均有明显的影响。②随着栾树凋落叶浸提液质量浓度的升高,黄芩幼苗叶片的SOD、CAT活性均呈先上升后下降的趋势,POD活性和脯氨酸含量总体先下降后上升;桔梗幼苗叶片的脯氨酸含量逐渐升高;甘草幼苗叶片的POD、CAT活性呈先升高后降低的趋势。③结合种子萌发和幼苗生长的综合化感效应指数来看,栾树凋落叶浸提液对黄芩表现出较强抑制作用,对桔梗和甘草表现出“低促高抑”效应。栾树凋落叶浸提液对3种中药材的化感效应强度由大到小表现为黄芩>桔梗>甘草。【结论】栾树林下适合种植甘草和桔梗,而黄芩的生长明显受到了栾树凋落叶浸提液的化感抑制作用,应避免种植在栾树林下。
关键词:  栾树  凋落叶  化感效应  种子萌发  幼苗生长
DOI:
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基金项目:北京市园林绿化局计划项目(2021-STBHXFC-04-11);国家林业和草原局项目(DNA-2021)
Allelopathic effects of Koelreuteria paniculata fallen leaves on seed germination and seedling growth of three medicinal plants
RUAN Kunfei,WANG Tianqi,HOU Lina,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The study on the allelopathic effects of fallen leaves of Koelreuteria paniculata on different herbs aims to select medicinal plants which may be suitable for growth under the forests of K. paniculata,and provide theoretical references for the development of non-timber forest-based economics in Beijing.【Method】In order to simulate the process of seed germination and seedling growth of medicinal plants affected by allelopathy released from fallen leaves of K. paniculata in the natural environment,we used germination tests and pot experiments to explore the effects of different concentrations(6.25,12.5,25 and 50 g/L)of the leaf litter extract of K. paniculata on seed germination and seedling growth of three herbs:Scutellaria baicalensis,Platycodon grandiflorus and Glycyrrhiza uralensis,using distilled water as the control(CK).【Result】①Compared with CK,significant effects were found on the indicators of germination rate,germination index,root length,seeding height,fresh quality and dry quality.②The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase of seedling leaves of S. baicalensis showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of the concentration of extract,while peroxidase and proline contents decreased first and then increased under K. paniculata leaf litter extract treatments.The content of proline of seedling leaves of P. grandiflorus increased with the increase of the concentration of extract and the peroxidase and catalase activities of seedling leaves of G.uralensis increased first and then decreased.③According to the comprehensive allelopathic effect index of seed germination and seedling growth,the leaf litter extract of K. paniculata showed an overall inhibitory effect on S.baicalensis,and showed a concentration effect of ‘low promotion and high inhibition’ on P. grandiflorus and G.uralensis.The allelopathic effects of different concentrations of the leaf litter extract of K. paniculata on the three herbs were S. baicalensis>P. grandiflorus>G. uralensis.【Conclusion】P. grandiflorus and G. uralensis are suitable for growth under the forests of K. paniculata.The growth of S.baicalensis was significantly inhibited by leaf litter extract of K. paniculata,and planting under the forests of Koelreuteria paniculata should be avoided.
Key words:  Koelreuteria paniculate  leaf litter  allelopathy  seed germination  seedling growth