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藏猪与DLY猪结肠消化酶活性、菌群结构及短链脂肪酸含量差异研究
张蓓宁1, 王燕红1, 刘锁珠,等1,2
1.西藏农牧学院 动物科学学院;2.西藏高原饲料加工工程研究中心
摘要:
【目的】探究藏猪和DLY猪结肠的消化酶活性、菌群结构和短链脂肪酸含量的差异,为2种猪的生产和理论研究提供参考。【方法】分别选取5头同一天分娩的藏仔猪和杜洛克×长白×约克三元杂交猪(DLY猪),饲养至210日龄,称量藏猪和DLY猪的体质量,并计算2种猪的平均日增质量。将藏猪和DLY猪屠宰后采集结肠粪便样品,分别利用Elisa试剂盒、高通量测序技术和气相色谱法测定藏猪和DLY猪结肠消化酶(纤维素酶和半纤维素酶)活性、菌群结构和短链脂肪酸(乙酸、丙酸、异丁酸、丁酸、异戊酸和戊酸)含量,分析2种猪结肠中以上差异指标之间的相关性。【结果】DLY猪的平均日增质量显著高于藏猪(P<0.05)。藏猪与DLY猪结肠中纤维素酶和半纤维酶的活性均无显著差异(P>0.05);藏猪结肠的6种Alpha多样性指数均显著高于DLY猪(P<0.05)。在门分类水平上,相较于DLY猪,藏猪结肠中拟杆菌门、疣微菌门和蓝细菌门的相对丰度显著升高,而厚壁菌门、梭杆菌门和浮霉菌门的相对丰度显著降低(P<0.05);在科分类水平上,藏猪的普雷沃氏菌科、月形单胞菌科、红螺菌科、弯曲菌科、阿克曼氏菌科和紫单胞菌科相对丰度显著高于DLY猪,而瘤胃球菌科、梭菌科、消化链球菌科、肠杆菌科和浮霉状菌科相对丰度显著低于DLY猪(P<0.05)。在属和种分类水平上,共有8个菌属和4个菌种在藏猪和DLY猪中存在显著差异,其中藏猪的月形单胞菌属、阿克曼氏菌属、弯曲杆菌属、马赛菌属、布劳特氏菌属以及纤维杆菌、普拉梭菌和罗伊氏乳杆菌相对丰度显著高于DLY猪,而梭菌属、艰难梭菌属、埃希氏菌属和大肠埃希氏菌相对丰度显著低于DLY猪(P<0.05)。藏猪结肠中乙酸、丙酸和丁酸含量显著低于DLY猪(P<0.05)。在藏猪和DLY猪结肠中,拟杆菌门与厚壁菌门相对丰度和丁酸含量存在极显著负相关性,而厚壁菌门相对丰度与丁酸含量存在极显著正相关性(P<0.01);厚壁菌门和梭菌属相对丰度与乙酸含量具有显著正相关性,而月形单胞菌属相对丰度与丙酸含量具有显著负相关性(P<0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,藏猪和DLY猪结肠菌群结构及短链脂肪酸含量均存在差异,表明藏猪和DLY猪结肠微生物对营养物质消化影响可能不同。
关键词:  藏猪;DLY猪;结肠;消化酶;菌群结构  微生物多样性;短链脂肪酸
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:西藏自治区自然科学基金一般项目(XZ202101ZR0020G);西藏自治区重点研发计划项目(XZ202001ZY0039N)
Differences in colon digestive enzyme activities,microflora and short chain fatty acids between Tibetan and DLY pigs
ZHANG Beining,WANG Yanhong,LIU Suozhu,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study explored the differences in digestive enzyme activities,microflora structure and short chain fatty acids in colon between Tibetan and Duroc×Landrace×York triple hybrid (DLY) pigs to provide references for the production and theoretical research of these two pig breeds.【Method】A total of 5 Tibetan piglets and 5 DLY piglets born on the same day were randomly selected and fed until 210 days of age.The body mass of Tibetan and DLY pigs was measured each day and the average daily mass gain o was calculated.After slaughter,colonic feces samples were collected to determine digestive enzyme activities (cellulase and hemicellulase),intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acid contents (acetic acid,propionic acid,isobutyric acid,butyric acid,isovaleric acid and valeric acid) by Elisa assay kit,high-throughput sequencing technology and gas chromatograph,respectively.The correlations between above indicators in colon between the two types of pigs were also analyzed.【Result】The average daily gain of DLY pigs was significantly higher than that of Tibetan pigs at same ages (P<0.05),and there was no significant difference in cellulase and hemicellulase activities (P>0.05).The diversity indexes of colon microflora in Tibetan pigs were significantly higher than in DLY pigs (P<0.05).At the phylum level,the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes,Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria was evidently higher while that of Firmicutes,Fusobacteria and Planctomycetes was distinctly lower in Tibetan pigs in comparison to DLY pigs (P<0.05).At the family level,the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae,Rhodospirillaceae,Selenomonadaceae,Campylobacteraceae,Akkermansiaceae and Porphyromonadaceae was significantly higher and that of Peptostreptococcaceae,Ruminococcaceae,Clostridiaceae,Enterobacteriaceae and Planctomycetaceae was considerably lower in Tibetan pigs (P<0.05).At the genus and species levels,a total of 8 genera and 4 species were significantly different between Tibetan and DLY pigs.The relative abundance of Selenomonas,Akkermansia,Campylobacter,Massilia,Blautia,Fibrobacter sp.,Faecalibacterium prausnitziiwere and Lactobacillus reuteri was evidently higher,while that of Clostridium,Clostridioides,Escherichia and Escherichia coli was significantly lower in Tibetan pigs in comparison to DLY pigs (P<0.05).The contents of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid differed significantly between Tibetan and DLY pigs (P<0.05).The relative abundance of Bacteroides was negatively correlated with Firmicutes abundance and butyric acid content (P<0.01),while the relative abundance of Firmicutes was positively correlated with butyric acid content.The relative abundance of Firmicutes and Clostridium had a significantly positive correlation with acetic acid content,while the relative abundance of Selenomonas had a significantly negative correlation with propionic acid content (P<0.05).【Conclusion】Under the conditions of this study, the colon microflora structure and short chain fatty acid contents were different between Tibetan and DLY pigs,indicating that the effects of colon microbes on nutrient digestion of Tibetan and DLY pigs may be different.
Key words:  Tibetan pigs  DLY pigs  colon  digestive enzyme  microflora structure  microbial diversity  short chain fatty acid