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芽孢杆菌固体菌剂对园林绿化废弃物堆肥的影响
沈丹青1, 于 鑫1, 韩 捷,等2
1.北京林业大学 林学院 森林培育与保护教育部重点实验室/园林绿化废弃物综合利用中心;2.北京市香山公园管理处
摘要:
【目的】研究2种自主研发的芽孢杆菌固体菌剂 B01、B02及其复合菌剂 (SB012)在园林绿化废弃物堆肥上的应用效果,为推广固体菌剂在园林绿化废弃物堆肥中的应用提供参考。【方法】以北京香山公园人工修剪或自然凋落的残体作为堆肥原材料,设置不添加菌剂的空白处理 (CK)以及添加芽孢杆菌固体菌剂B01、B02、SB012和市面上公认较优液体菌剂EM 共5个处理,其中固体复合菌剂SB012是将B01与B02按照质量比3∶1混合而成,加入菌剂后每日12:00测定1次堆体温度;每7 d采集1次样品,测定不同处理堆肥的pH、电导率(EC)、白菜种子发芽指数 (GI)和木质素、纤维素含量及其相对降解率以及腐殖酸、胡敏酸、富里酸含量与胡富比,分析B01、B02、SB012对堆肥进程的影响。【结果】随着发酵时间延长,不同处理的堆肥温度总体呈先上升后下降趋势。与CK处理相比,添加B01、B02、SB012和EM菌剂均能促进园林绿化废弃物堆体提前进入高温期,其中B01处理堆肥温度峰值最高,可达72.1 ℃;SB012处理次之,为70.2 ℃,均高于EM、CK处理。随着发酵时间延长,不同处理堆肥的pH总体呈升高趋势,EC呈先升高后降低趋势,直至堆肥结束(42 d)时,不同处理的pH均高于8.0,EC为0.76~1.04 mS/cm,均达到了国家对绿化植物废弃物的堆肥产品要求。随着发酵时间延长,不同处理白菜种子发芽指数(GI)总体呈先升高后降低趋势,其中堆肥结束时3种固体菌剂的GI依次为SB012>B01>B02,均高于EM和CK处理,且均满足对植物无毒害的标准 (GI≥85%)。5个处理中,SB012处理的木质素和纤维素相对降解率均最高,分别达到56.85%和79.84%,且显著高于EM和CK处理。【结论】SB012菌剂对园林绿化废弃物堆肥中纤维素、木质素的降解具有最好的促进效果,其堆肥产品具有品质好、安全性高等优点,可在园林绿化废弃物堆肥中推广应用。
关键词:  芽孢杆菌  微生物降解  绿化废弃物  堆肥
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:科技部基础资源调查专项(2021FY100802);北京市自然科学基金项目 (6202021)
Effect of Bacillus solid bacterial inocula on compost of green waste
SHEN Danqing,YU Xin,HAN Jie,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the effects of two self-developed Bacillus solid inocula (B01 and B02) and their compound agent (SB012) on green waste compost to encourage the application of solid inocula.【Method】Five treatments including blank treatment without adding bacteria (CK),solid bacteria B01,B02 and SB012 as well as liquid bacteria EM,which is widely regarded as the best on the market,were applied to the plant residues artificially pruned or naturally withered from Beijing Fragrant Hills Park as raw materials for composting.The solid bactericide SB012 was created by combining B01 and B02 with mass ratio of 3∶1.After inoculation,heap temperature was measured at 12:00 once per day.The samples were collected every 7 days to determine pH,electrical conductivity (EC),germination index (GI),humic extract,contents of humic acid and fulvic acid,ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid,and contents and relative degradation rates of lignin and cellulose in different compost treatments and the effects of B01,B02 and SB012 on composting process were evaluated.【Result】Over time,the temperature of compost under different treatments increased first and then decreased.Compared with CK,the addition of B01,B02,SB012 and EM promoted the green waste heaps to enter the high temperature stage in advance.The peak temperatures of B01 and SB012 composts reached 72.1 and 70.2 ℃,both were higher than EM and CK.The EC decreased after initial increase,while the pH of the compost increased throughout all treatments.At the end of composting process,all treatments had a pH greater than 8.0 and their EC ranged from 0.76 to 1.04 mS/cm,all of which met the national standards for green waste compost products.The GI increased first and then decreased under different treatments,and the GI order of the three kinds of solid inocula at the end of composting was SB012>B01>B02,which will all higher than that of EM and CK,reaching the standard of no toxicity to plants (≥85%).Among the five treatments,the highest relative degradation rates of lignin and cellulose were 56.85% and 79.84% in SB012 treatment,which were significantly higher than EM treatment and CK treatment.【Conclusion】The SB012 bactericide had the best promotion for cellulose and lignin components in landscaping waste compost with the advantages of excellent quality and safety.
Key words:  Bacillus sp.  microbial degradation  green waste  compost