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奶山羊乳房类型变化及其对泌乳性能的影响
李恒蕊1, 谢洋洋1, 葛丽岩,等1
西北农林科技大学 动物科技学院 陕西省动物遗传育种与繁殖重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】探究奶山羊不同泌乳时期乳房类型的变化规律及其对泌乳性能的影响。【方法】以99只健康、产奶期相近的初产泌乳西农萨能奶山羊为试验对象,对其5个泌乳时间点(14,70,126,182和211 d)的乳房类型(乳房外形分为方圆形、长条形和宽扁形,乳房基部分为半球形和柚子形)和日产奶量进行记录,同时采集乳样对乳成分(脂肪率、蛋白率、乳糖率、总固体和非脂率)和体细胞数进行检测,并利用SPSS软件对试数据进行分析。【结果】随着泌乳时间的增加,方圆-半球型(Sh)乳房数量占比呈下降趋势,长条-柚子型(Lg)乳房数量占比呈上升趋势;乳房外形由方圆形(S)和宽扁形(W)趋向长条形(L)转变,乳房基部由半球形(h)趋向柚子形(g)转变; 5种乳房类型整体趋向长条-柚子型(Lg)乳房变化。泌乳70 d时,方圆-半球型(Sh)乳房和长条-半球型(Lh)乳房的奶山羊产奶量显著高于长条-柚子型(Lg)乳房和宽扁-柚子型(Wg)乳房(P<0.05); 泌乳14 d时,宽扁-柚子型(Wg)乳房的奶山羊的脂肪含量和总固体量均显著高于方圆-柚子型(Sg)乳房(P<0.05);泌乳182 d时,方圆-柚子型(Sg)乳房的奶山羊的乳蛋白率显著低于长条-半球型(Lh)乳房和宽扁-柚子型(Wg)乳房(P<0.05)。不同乳房类型奶山羊乳体细胞数无显著差异(P>0.05)。【结论】奶山羊的乳房类型随着泌乳时间的推移而发生变化,泌乳70 d时,方圆-半球型(Sh)乳房和长条-半球型(Lh)乳房奶山羊的产奶量高。
关键词:  奶山羊  乳房类型  泌乳性能  奶山羊选育
DOI:
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基金项目:陕西省创新能力支撑计划项目(2021TD-31);国家自然科学基金项目(32272828);西安市科技计划项目(20NYYF0030)
Udder type variation of dairy goats and its effects on lactation performance
LI Hengrui,XIE Yangyang,GE Liyan,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the change pattern of udder types of dairy goats at different lactation periods and its relationship with lactation performance.【Method】The udder types (udder shape was divided into square,long and wide flat,and udder base was divided into hemisphere and grapefruit) and daily milk yield of 99 healthy and primiparous Xinong Saanen dairy goats with similar lactation periods were recorded.Milk samples were collected to test milk composition (fat percentage,protein percentage,lactose percentage,total solids and non-fat percentage ) and to determine somatic cell counts at five lactation points (14,70,126,182 and 211 d).The SPSS software was used for data analysis.【Result】The number of square-hemisphere udders decreased and the number of long-grapefruit udders increased with the increase of lactation time.Shapes of udders tended to change from square and wide flat to long,and the base of hemisphere udders tended to change to grapefruit shape.The five udder types tended to change to long grapefruit shape as a whole.At 70 d,the milk yield of dairy goats with square-hemisphere udder and long-hemisphere udder was significantly higher than that of goats with long-grapefruit udder and wide-grapefruit udder (P<0.05).At 14 d,contents of fat and total solids of wide-grapefruit udder were significantly higher than that of square-hemisphere udder (P<0.05).At 182 d,the milk protein rate of dairy goats with square-hemisphere udder was significantly lower than that of dairy goats with long-grapefruit udder and wide-grapefruit udder (P<0.05).The milk protein rate of goats with square-grapefruit udders was significantly lower than that of goats with wide-grapefruit udders (P<0.05).The number of somatic cells in milk among udder types was not significantly different (P>0.05).【Conclusion】The udder type of dairy goats changed with lactation time,and the milk production of dairy goats with square-hemisphere and long-hemisphere udders was high at 70 d.
Key words:  dairy goat  udder types  lactation performance  dairy goat selection and breeding