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滚筒刷式巴旦木脱青皮机的设计与试验
石 鑫1, 杨豫新1, 牛长河,等1
新疆农业科学院 农业机械化研究所
摘要:
【目的】设计滚筒刷式巴旦木脱青皮机并进行样机试制和试验,为巴旦木初加工设备的研发提供参考。【方法】对青皮巴旦木和硬壳巴旦木果实物料特征参数进行测量,并使用Origin进行绘图,利用Solidworks软件对滚筒刷式巴旦木脱青皮机进行了整机及关键部件设计,根据结构参数和工作需求,选用主轴转速、间隙(钢刷与栅条滚筒底部距离)和喂入速度为试验因素,以脱净率和破损率为试验指标进行三因素三水平响应面试验,并以寻优圆整值进行试验验证。【结果】物料特征参数统计显示,青皮巴旦木长度均值为36.5 mm,宽度均值为28.0 mm,厚度均值为22.5 mm;硬壳巴旦木果实长度均值约为33.5 mm,宽度均值为23.5 mm,厚度均值为15.5 mm。滚筒刷式巴旦木脱青皮机的最佳作业参数为主轴转速307.5 r/min,间隙20.1 mm,喂入速度811.5 kg/h,理论脱净率为96.00%,破损率为2.28%。利用圆整值(主轴转速310 r/min,间隙20 mm,喂入速度810 kg/h)对2种巴旦木进行脱青皮验证试验,实测脱净率分别为96.32%和95.86%,破损率分别为2.42%和3.34%。两种巴旦木的脱净率均大于95%,破损率均小于4%,二者的破损率和脱净率差值均不足1%。【结论】所设计的滚筒刷式巴旦木脱青皮机符合中厚壳巴旦木脱皮作业的工作需求。
关键词:  巴旦木  脱青皮机  工作参数  农机装备
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区林业发展补助资金项目(XJLYKJ-2021-17);国家自然科学基金项目(51665058)
Design and test of brush roller type almond peeling machine
SHI Xin,YANG Yuxin,NIU Changhe,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】Design a brush roller type almond peeling machine and the prototype was manufactured and tested to provide references for the research and development of raw processing equipment of almonds.【Method】The material characteristics were measured and origin was used for plotting.The brush roller type almond peeling machine and its key components were designed using the Solidworks software.According to structural parameters and work requirements, rotating speed of principal axis,gap (the distance between the steel brush and the bottom of grid roller) and feeding speed were selected as testing factors.The three-factor and three-level response surface tests were conducted using peeling rate and damage rate as indicators for the optimization and verification.【Result】The statistics of material characteristic parameters showed that average length,width and thickness of green almonds were 36.5 mm,28.0 mm and 22.5 mm,respectively.The average length,width and thickness of almond fruits without peel were 33.5 mm,23.5 mm and 15.5 mm,respectively.The field test results showed that the best operating parameters of the machine were rotating speed of principal axis 307.5 r/min,gap 20.1 mm,feeding speed 811.5 kg/h,peeling rate 96.00% and damage rate 2.28%.A verification test was conducted to remove the skin of two varieties of almonds using rounding values (rotating speed of principal axis 310 r/min,gap 20 mm and feeding speed 810 kg/h),and the obtained peeling rates were 96.32% and 95.86% and the damage rates were 2.42% and 3.34%,respectively.The peeling rates were more than 95% and the damage rates were less than 4% with less than 1% differences among green almonds and almond fruits without peel.【Conclusion】The designed roller brush type almond peeling machine met the working requirements of almond peeling.
Key words:  almonds  almond peeling machine  working parameters  agricultural equipment