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玉米根际解磷解钾细菌的筛选、鉴定及其生态适应性研究
孙亚钦1, 张书红2, 张 影,等1
1.河南科技学院 资源与环境学院,河南省生物药肥研发与协同应用工程研究中心;2.河南心连心化学工业集团股份有限公司
摘要:
【目的】对玉米根际解磷和解钾细菌进行筛选、鉴定,并分析其生态适应性,以期为丰富解磷和解钾微生物资源库以及微生物菌肥的开发利用提供优良菌株。【方法】利用平板稀释法从玉米根际筛选具有解有机磷和解无机磷能力的细菌,通过16S rRNA基因序列构建系统进化树,鉴定其种类,随后挑选解有机磷和无机磷能力最强的菌株,分析其解钾能力和生态适应性。【结果】在玉米根际筛选获得9株解有机磷细菌和2株解无机磷细菌,其对应培养液中速效磷质量浓度分别为0.018~4.479和5.383~6.242 mg/L。由系统进化树可知,这些菌株分别隶属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、贪铜菌属(Cupriavidus)、勒克氏菌属(Leclercia)和肠杆菌属(Enterobacter),解有机磷最强的菌株P4-5与弗雷德里克斯堡假单胞菌(P. frederiksbergensis)聚为一支,解无机磷最强的菌株CP4-12与非脱羧勒克菌(L. adecarboxylata)聚为一支。菌株P4-5和CP4-12从含钾长石培养液中分解出的速效钾质量浓度分别为8.100和1.333 mg/L。菌株P4-5耐盐性强,不耐强酸、强碱以及中度以上干旱和高浓度农药;而菌株CP4-12耐盐性、耐旱性及耐药性均较强,但不耐强酸和强碱。【结论】从玉米根际土壤中筛选出了2株兼具解磷和解钾能力的细菌,均具有耐酸碱、耐盐、耐干旱和耐农药能力,为微生物菌肥的研制提供了优良的菌种资源。
关键词:  玉米根际  解磷解钾细菌  生态适应性  微生物菌肥
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(31872184);河南省自然科学基金优秀青年科学基金项目(222300420044)
Isolation,identification and ecological adaptability of phosphate-and potassium-solubilizing bacteria in maize rhizosphere
SUN Yaqin,ZHANG Shuhong,ZHANG Ying,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The phosphate-and potassium-solubilizing bacteria were isolated and identified from maize rhizosphere and their ecological adaptability was further analyzed in the present study,which provide excellent strains for enriching the microbial resources library and developing microbial fertilizers.【Method】The phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from maize rhizosphere by plate dilution method and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence and homologous alignment.Subsequently,the strains with the strongest capability of phosphate solubilization were selected to analyze their potassium solubilization capability and ecological adaptability.【Result】A total of 9 strains of organic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and 2 strains of inorganic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were obtained from maize rhizosphere,and the concentrations of available phosphate were 0.018 to 4.479 mg/L and 5.383 to 6.242 mg/L,respectively.According to the phylogenetic tree,these strains were identified and affiliated to Pseudomonas,Bacillus,Cupriavidus,Leclercia and Enterobacter,respectively.The strain P4-5 with the strongest capability of organic phosphate solubilization was grouped into a clade with Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis,and strain CP4-12 with the strongest inorganic phosphate solubilization capacity was clustered a clade with Leclercia adecarboxylata.Strains P4-5 and CP4-12 dissolved potassium feldspar in the liquid medium and the corresponding available potassium concentrations were 8.100 mg/L and 1.333 mg/L,respectively.Strain P4-5 had a strong ability to resist salt,but could not tolerate strong acid and alkali,moderate drought and high concentrations of pesticides.Strain CP4-12 had strong salt,drought and pesticides resistance,while could not tolerate strong acid and alkali.【Conclusion】Two bacterial strains with phosphate and potassium solubilization capacity were isolated from maize rhizosphere with ability to resist acid,alkali,salt,drought and pesticides.This study provides excellent strain resources for the application of microbial fertilizers.
Key words:  maize rhizosphere  phosphate-and potassium-solubilizing bacteria  ecological adaptability  microbial fertilizer