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多花黄精高效栽培肥料减施潜力分析
李峻安1, 刘玉民1, 邓远苇,等1
西南大学 资源环境学院
摘要:
【目的】揭示肥料减施对多花黄精产量及品质的影响,探究减量施肥的可行性及减施潜力,为多花黄精合理施肥提供理论参考。【方法】采用单因素多水平随机区组设计,设置不施肥(CK)、常量施肥(农民习惯氮、磷、钾施肥量分别为180,180,90 kg/hm2)和减量施肥(氮、磷、钾单量减施分别为常量施肥的33%,67%,100%)11个施肥处理,于采收期(10月下旬)进行采样,测定不同施肥处理多花黄精地上部分生理指标(株高、地径、叶片数、叶面积、茎叶干质量)、根茎质量及根茎多糖、皂苷含量的变化,不同生长时期的根茎产量研究分别在开花期(6月上旬)、果实期(8月中旬)和采收期(10月下旬)采样,测定根茎干(鲜)质量。【结果】施肥能促进各时期多花黄精根茎生长,多花黄精根茎鲜质量和干质量随施氮量增加而增大,减量33%施氮对多花黄精根茎鲜质量无显著影响,但会导致根茎干质量明显降低;施磷量与产量间无明显的量效关系,减量67%施磷时各时期多花黄精根茎鲜质量和干质量最大;采收期根茎鲜质量随施钾量的提高而增加,且与常量施肥间无显著差异,各时期常量施肥的根茎干质量明显大于其他施肥处理。磷、钾肥减量33%时多花黄精的株高、地径、叶片数、叶面积、茎叶干质量均与常量施肥间无显著差异;除茎叶干质量外,氮肥减施33%时其余指标与常量施肥间也无显著差异。施肥均能增加多花黄精根茎中多糖和皂苷含量,随氮、磷肥施肥量增加多糖含量呈上升趋势,随钾肥施用量增加呈先增后减趋势;磷、钾减施33%时根茎中多糖含量与常量施肥间无显著差异,但皂苷含量显著高于常量施肥。【结论】氮、磷、钾单量减施(与农民习惯施肥量相比)33%时对多花黄精根茎产量无显著影响,减施33%磷肥还可提高干物质在根茎中的分配比例,磷钾肥适量减施有利于提高多花黄精品质,促进多糖和皂苷的累积;基于成本投入及环境效益等综合分析,在重庆地区常量施肥的基础上,氮、磷、钾单量减施33%是适宜的。
关键词:  多花黄精  减量施肥  药材品质
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:中央财政林业科技推广示范项目(渝林科推2017-07);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(SWU119066)
Potential of reducing fertilizer application in Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua
LI Jun’an,LIU Yumin,DENG Yuanwei,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The purpose was to investigate the effect of reducing fertilizer application on yield and quality of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua and explore the feasibility and potential of reducing fertilization,so as to provide references for rational fertilization in efficient cultivation of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua.【Method】The single factor and multi-level randomized block design was used in this study.N,P and K fertilization treatments including no fertilization (CK),constant fertilization (amounts of N,P and K were 180,180 and 90 kg/hm2,respectively) and constant fertilization reductions of 33%,67% and 100% were conducted.Above ground physiological indexes (plant height,ground diameter,leaf number,leaf area and dry weights of stem and leaf),rhizome quality,and contents of rhizome polysaccharide and saponin of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua were measured.The content of rhizome was determined by sampling in flowering stage (early June),fruit stage (middle August) and harvest stage (late October).【Result】Fertilization promoted rhizome growth of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua at different stages,and the fresh and dry weights of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua rhizome increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate.Reducing 33% nitrogen application had no significant effect on fresh weight of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua rhizome,but it could significantly reduce the dry weight.There was no significant dose effect relationship between phosphorus application rate and yield.The highest fresh and dry weights of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua rhizome were obtained when phosphorus application rate was reduced by 67%.Fresh weight of rhizome at harvest increased with the increase of potassium application rate without significant differences among treatments.There was no significant differences in plant height,ground diameter,leaf number,leaf area and dry weights of stem and leaf when phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were reduced by 33%.Except for dry weights of stem and leaf,there was no significant difference in other indexes among 33% nitrogen fertilizer reduction and constant fertilization.Contents of polysaccharide and saponin in rhizome of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua increased with the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application,and they increased first and then decreased with the increase of potassium fertilizer application.However,there was no significant difference in content of polysaccharide in rhizome of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua among 33% reduction of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application and constant fertilization,while content of saponin with 33% reduction of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application was significantly higher than that of constant fertilization.【Conclusion】The results showed that 33% reduction of N,P and K had no significant effect on rhizome yield of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua,while 33% reduction of P increased the distribution ratio of dry matter in the rhizome.Appropriate reduction of P and K could improve the quality of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua and promote the accumulation of polysaccharides and saponins.Based on the comprehensive analysis of cost input and environmental benefits,it is appropriate to reduce nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application by 33% on the basis of constant fertilization in Chongqing.
Key words:  Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua  reduced fertilization  quality of medicinal materials