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施氮对蜀恢498及其突变体株型和物质生产特性的影响
杨志平, 周 伟, 王 淘,等
四川农业大学 农学院/农业部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】分析不同施氮量处理下水稻株型、物质生产以及产量的变化规律,为水稻新品种的选育和栽培管理提供参考。【方法】2015-2016年,以蜀恢498(R498)及其突变体sg1和sg2为材料,采用两因素裂区设计,其中施氮量为主因素(0,90,180 kg/hm2以下简称为CK,N90,N180),水稻材料为副因素,分析了不同施氮处理下蜀恢498及其突变体节间长度、叶部特征、叶面积指数、高效叶面积率、粒叶比、干物质量、产量及其构成因素的变化。【结果】(1)施氮对R498及其突变体sg1和sg2上部N1~N5节间长度均有一定影响,其中N1、N2和N3的节间长度均表现为R498>sg1>sg2,差异达到显著水平,N4和N5节间长度无明显变化规律。在同一节间下,低氮处理(N90)的节间长度与高氮处理(N180)的差异不显著。与CK相比,施氮增加了水稻叶片长度和宽度、单叶面积以及叶面积指数,降低了2016年高效叶面积率。(2)随着施氮量的增加,粒叶比呈降低趋势;3个材料中,sg1的粒叶比最大,比R498和sg2分别高14.97%和34.83%。(3)干物质量随施氮量的增加而增大,N90与N180处理间差异较小。2015-2016年,水稻的产量均表现为R498>sg1>sg2。R498、sg1和sg2产量均随施氮量的增加而增大。2015和2016年,R498、sg1和sg2 N90处理的产量比N180处理分别减少了14.96%,14.45%,23.77%和2.23%,6.25%,8.66%。有效穗数和千粒质量均表现为R498>sg1>sg2,而颖花数和着粒密度则表现为sg2>sg1> R498;施氮对有效穗数影响最大,N90与N180处理间差异总体达到显著水平。(4)2015和2016年,N90处理氮肥偏生产力处理显著高于N180处理。氮肥农学利用率表现为sg2>sg1>R498,氮肥偏生产力表现为R498>sg1>sg2。【结论】突变体sg1对氮响应较慢,在水稻育种中有很大的应用价值。在杂交品种选育中,可通过观测不同材料在不同供氮水平下的表现,从而选育出稳产增产的水稻新品种,更好地实现减氮稳产增效。
关键词:  水稻施肥  供氮水平  蜀恢498  突变体  水稻育种  减氮稳产
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家粮食丰产增效科技创新专项(2017YFD0301702;2016YFD0300506);四川省育种攻关项目(2016NYZ0051)
Effects of nitrogen fertilizer management on plant type and dry matter production of Shuhui 498 and its mutants
YANG Zhiping, ZHOU Wei, WANG Tao,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The variations of rice plant type,material production and yield under different nitrogen application rates were analyzed to provide reference for the breeding and cultivation management of new rice varieties with stable traits.【Method】In 2015 and 2016,Shuhui 498 (R498) and its mutants sg1 and sg2 were planted with two-factor splitting design.Nitrogen application rate was the main factor with rates of 0,90 and 180 kg/hm2 (referred to as CK,N90 and N180) and rice material was the secondary factor.Then the changes in internode length,leaf characteristics,leaf area index,efficient leaf area ratio,grain-leaf ratio,dry matter quality, gain yield and yield components under different nitrogen treatments were analyzed.【Results】(1) Nitrogen application had effect on the internode lengths of R498 and its mutants sg1 and sg2 above N1-N5.The internode lengths of N1,N2 and N3 were in the order of R498>sg1>sg2,and the difference was significant.However,there was no significant change in the lengths of N4 and N5.Under same internodes,the difference between internode lengths of low nitrogen treatment (N90) and high nitrogen treatment (N180) was not significant.Compared with CK,nitrogen application increased leaf length,leaf width,single leaf area and leaf area index,but decreased efficiency leaf area rate in 2016.(2) As the amount of nitrogen increased,the grain-leaf ratio decreased.The grain leaf ratio of sg1 was the largest,14.97% and 34.83% higher than R498 and sg2,respectively.(3) The dry matter production increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate,but the difference between N90 and N180 was small.In 2015 and 2016,the gain yields of rice were in the order of R498>sg1>sg2,and both increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate.Compared with N180,the productions of R498,sg1 and sg2 under N90 treatment decreased by 14.96%,14.45%,and 23.77% in 2015,and by 2.23%,6.25% and 8.66% in 2016.The effective panicle number and 1000-grain quality were all in the order of R498>sg1>sg2,while the number of spikelets and grain density were in the order of sg2>sg1>R498.Nitrogen application had the greatest effect on number of effective panicles with significant difference between N90 and N180.(4) In 2015 and 2016,partial factor productivity of low nitrogen (N90) treatment was significantly higher than that of high nitrogen treatment(N180),and agronomic nitrogen use efficiencies were in the order of sg2>sg1>R498.【Conclusion】Mutant sg1 had slower and more stable response to nitrogen,having great application value in rice breeding.In the breeding of hybrid varieties,new rice varieties with stable and increasing yield can be selected through the performance of different materials under different nitrogen supply levels.
Key words:  rice fertilization  nitrogen supply level  Shuhui 498  mutant  rice breeding  nitrogen reduction and efficiency