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硫酸钾对浑水滴灌滴头堵塞的影响
官雅辉1,2,3, 牛文全1,4, 刘 璐,等4
1.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究所;2.中国旱区节水农业研究院;3.中国科学院大学;4.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所
摘要:
【目的】分析引黄灌溉过程中肥料硫酸钾对滴头堵塞的影响,为水肥一体化滴灌的实施提供参考。【方法】分别配制3种含沙量(1.0,1.5和2.0 g/L)和3种硫酸钾质量浓度(10,20和30 g/L)的浑水进行间歇灌水堵塞试验,计算滴头的平均相对流量和灌水均匀度,利用场发射扫描电镜分析流道堵塞物结构,收集并分析滴头输出泥沙和毛管淤积泥沙的机械组成。【结果】施加硫酸钾后浑水滴灌滴头堵塞出现加速现象,硫酸钾质量浓度越大,加速堵塞作用越明显。当硫酸钾质量浓度为30 g/L时,含沙量1.0,1.5和2.0 g/L处理的有效灌水次数分别较未施肥处理减少4,9和8次,滴头堵塞率较未施肥处理增加30%~35%;施加硫酸钾显著增大了水的电导率,未施加硫酸钾的浑水电导率为0.16 ms/cm,硫酸钾质量浓度为30 g/L时,含钾浑水的电导率为25.19 ms/cm。硫酸钾质量浓度对滴头堵塞的位置有一定影响,对进水口堵塞影响较小,对滴头流道堵塞影响较大,当硫酸钾质量浓度为10,20和30 g/L时,流道堵塞滴头数较未施肥处理分别增加了7,18和17个。硫酸钾改变了灌溉水的电导率,易产生硫酸盐沉淀而造成滴头堵塞。施加硫酸钾肥后,浑水中泥沙颗粒易吸附K+,增加了泥沙颗粒之间的团聚,导致堵塞物表面结构复杂程度提高,堵塞物致密性和稳定性增强;浑水中施加硫酸钾肥后,输出泥沙中粉砂和黏粒比例较毛管淤积泥沙大,砂粒比例则较毛管淤积泥沙小,淤积泥沙的分形维数与平均相对流量呈显著负相关。【结论】选用硫酸钾进行施钾一体化滴灌时,硫酸钾质量浓度宜小于10 g/L,以减缓其对滴头堵塞的影响。
关键词:  滴灌  水肥一体化  硫酸钾  浑水灌溉  滴头堵塞
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51679205);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400202)
Effect of potassium sulfate on clogging of dripper with muddy water
GUAN Yahui,NIU Wenquan,LIU Lu,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to provide reference for the implementation of water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation,this study evaluated the effects of potassium sulfate on the clogging of the drip in fertigation with muddy water such as the Yellow River water.【Method】Three kinds of sediment content(1.0,1.5 and 2.0 g/L)and three kinds of potassium sulfate mass concentration(10,20 and 30 g/L)were arranged.A kind of intermittent irrigation clogging experiment was designed,the changes of average relative flow rate and coefficient of uniformity of the dripper were calculated.After that period,the siltation’s characteristics and structure of the runner block had been analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy.Lastly,the dripper output sediment and deposition sediment were collected and analyzed.【Result】Adding potassium sulfate into muddy water accelerates the clogging of dripper,and the higher potassium sulfate mass concentration was,the more obvious the effect of accelerating the clogging was.When potassium sulfate mass concentration was 30 g/L,the effective irrigation times of different sediment content, which were 1.0,1.5 and 2.0 g/L,reduced by 4 times,9 times and 8 times respectively and the clogging rate increased by 30%-35%.Potassium sulfate increased the conductivity significantly,the conductivity of muddy water was 0.16 ms/cm when there was no fertilization,and however the conductivity which potassium sulfate mass concentration of 30 g/L was 25.19 ms/cm.The potassium sulfate mass concentration has a certain effect on the clogging position of the dripper,which has little effect on the inlet’s clogging and has a great effect on the channel block.The potassium sulfate mass concentration was 10,20 and 30 g/L,and the total number of blocked flow blockage was increased by 7,18 and 17 respectively than without fertilizer.Potassium sulfate changes the conductivity of irrigation water,affecting sulfate precipitation and resulting in dripper clogging.After the application of potassium sulfate,the sediment in the water is easy to adsorb K+,which increases the agglomeration between the sediment particles,resulting in the increase of the complexity of surface structure of the clogging and the compactness and stability of the clogging material.After applying potassium sulfate in muddy water,the proportion of silt and clay in the output sediment is larger than that in the capillary,and the proportion of sand is less than the deposition sediment in the pipe.The fractal dimension of siltation sediment was negatively correlated with the average relative flow rate.【Conclusion】If using the potassium sulfate fertilizer for drip irrigation,people should reduce the potassium sulfate concentration below 10 g/L,in order to slow the dripper clogging.
Key words:  drip irrigation  fertigation  potassium sulfate  irrigation with muddy water  dripper clogging