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吐鲁番地区11个葡萄品种的设施栽培特性分析
吴久赟1,2, 刘翔宇2, 雷 静,等2
1.石河子大学农学院;2.新疆农业科学院 吐鲁番农业科学研究所
摘要:
【目的】筛选适宜吐鲁番地区日光温室栽培的早熟葡萄品种,以满足吐鲁番地区发展设施葡萄栽培的需求。【方法】2013-2016年,在设施栽培条件下,系统研究了吐鲁番地区引种的‘京蜜’‘京香玉’‘京翠’‘夏至红’‘洛浦早生’‘6-12’‘早黑宝’‘早康宝’‘绿宝石’‘金田玫瑰’‘金田蜜’等11个葡萄品种的物候期、结果特性、果穗和果粒的品质性状及栽培适应性,利用主成分分析法评价各品种的综合表现。【结果】在吐鲁番地区日光温室栽培条件下, 11个葡萄品种均为早熟品种,但各品种在物候期、生长结果习性、葡萄果实性状等方面存在差异。‘6-12’‘洛浦早生’‘夏至红’从萌芽到浆果成熟时间小于100 d,为极早熟品种;各品种萌芽率为44.00%~71.90%,其中以‘绿宝石’最高,‘早康宝’最低,差异极显著;结果系数为0.10~0.94,‘京翠’最高,‘绿宝石’最低,差异极显著;引种成活率均较高,为85.71%~100.00%,‘6-12’最低。‘早黑宝’穗质量最大,极显著大于其他10个品种;‘早康宝’‘金田蜜’粒质量较大,显著或极显著大于其他品种。11个品种果粒的可溶性固形物含量为13.2%~19.0%,其中以‘金田玫瑰’最高,‘绿宝石’最低,极显著低于其他品种。主成分分析表明, 11个品种综合得分排序为:‘早黑宝’>‘金田玫瑰’>‘早康宝’>‘金田蜜’>‘京翠’>‘京蜜’>‘京香玉’>‘夏至红’>‘6-12’>‘洛浦早生’>‘绿宝石’。【结论】‘早黑宝’‘金田玫瑰’‘早康宝’‘金田蜜’‘京翠’‘京蜜’‘京香玉’等品种适宜吐鲁番地区设施栽培,‘夏至红’‘6-12’‘洛浦早生’‘绿宝石’等品种的表现不如原育种地,且生长势过强,不适宜吐鲁番地区设施栽培。
关键词:  吐鲁番  葡萄  引种试验  栽培特性
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区公益性科研院所基本科研业务经费资助项目“新疆葡萄资源收集、整理与评价”(KYGY2016130);新疆农业科学院青年基金项目“吐鲁番葡萄的耐热性分析评价”(xjnkq 2017012)
Cultivation characteristics of eleven grape cultivars in solar greenhouse in Turpan
WU Jiuyun,LIU Xiangyu,LEI Jing,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The objective of this study was to select suitable early maturing grape cultivars in solar greenhouse in Turpan to meet the requirements of grape cultivation in greenhouse.【Method】Eleven grape cultivars including ‘Jingmi’,‘Jingxiangyu’,‘Jingcui’,‘Xiazhihong’,‘Luopuzaosheng’,‘6-12’,‘Zaoheibao’,‘Zaokangbao’,‘Lvbaoshi’,‘Jintianmeigui’ and ‘Jintianmi’ were selected for cultivation from 2013 to 2016. The primary phenophase,growth and fruiting habits,quality characters of bunch and berry,and adaptability in solar greenhouse in Turpan were systematically studied and the comprehensive scores were obtained using the principal component analysis method.【Result】 In solar greenhouse cultivation in Turpan,all the eleven grape cultivars were early maturing varieties,with differences in phonological phase, growth and fruiting habits and grape fruit characters. The ‘6-12’‘Luopuzaosheng’ and ‘Xiazhihong’ with less than 100 d from bud to berry ripe were very early maturing cultivars. The germination rates were 44.00%-71.90% with the highest in ‘Lvbaoshi’, the lowest in ‘Zaokangbao’, and significant difference among varieties. The coefficients were 0.10-0.94,with the highest in ‘Jingcui’, the lowest in ‘Lvbaoshi’, and significant differences among varieties. Introduction survival rates were 85.71%-100.00%,with the lowest in ‘6-12’.‘Zaoheibao’ had significantly higher bunch weight than other cultivars.‘Zaokangbao’ and ‘Jintianmi’ had significantly higher berry weight than other cultivars.Soluble solid contents were 13.2%-19.0% with the highest in ‘Jintianmeigui’.‘Lvbaoshi’ was the lowest,and significantly lower than other cultivars.The principal component analysis showed that the comprehensive scores were in the order of ‘Zaoheibao’>‘Jintianmeigui’>‘Zaokangbao’>‘Jintianmi’>‘Jingcui’>‘Jingmi’>‘Jingxiangyu’>‘Xiazhihong’>‘6-12’>‘Luopuzaosheng’>‘Lvbaoshi’. 【Conclusion】‘Zaoheibao’ ‘Jintianmeigui’,‘Zaokangbao’,‘Jintianmi’,‘Jingcui’,‘Jingmi’ and ‘Jingxiangyu’ were suitable for cultivation in solar greenhouse in Turpan,while ‘Xiazhihong’,‘6-12’,‘Luopuzaosheng’ and ‘Lvbaoshi’ were not suitable since they performed worse than in their original locations and their growth potential was too strong.
Key words:  Turpan  grape  introduction experiment  cultivated character