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微咸水灌溉对设施番茄果实糖积累及蔗糖代谢相关酶活性的影响
李 娟, 田 萍, 李建设,等
宁夏大学 农学院
摘要:
【目的】探究微咸水不同灌溉方式对番茄果实糖含量及蔗糖代谢相关酶活性的影响,为微咸水合理、高效的利用提供理论参考。【方法】以番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)‘京番301’为试材,采用沙土槽培的栽培方法,在防渗措施与灌水定额相同的条件下,共设5个处理:微咸水(EC=3.0 mS/cm)直接灌溉(CK)、地下淡水灌溉(T1)、混合水灌溉(V(微咸水)∶V(地下淡水)=1∶1,T2)、微咸水与地下淡水按生育期轮灌(苗期、开花期为地下淡水处理,果实发育期微咸水处理,T3)、微咸水与地下淡水按次轮灌(T4),研究了微咸水不同灌溉方式对白熟期、转色期、成熟期番茄果实不同部位(果皮、果肉、心室隔壁、胶质胎座)中葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖、淀粉含量及酸性转化酶(AI)、中性转化酶(NI)、蔗糖合成酶(SS)、蔗糖磷酸合成酶(SPS )4种蔗糖代谢相关酶活性的影响。【结果】整体来看,CK和T4处理有利于提高3个生育期番茄果实各部位葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖的含量,与T1相比,CK和T4处理下成熟期果肉中葡萄糖含量分别提高了31.55%和30.17%,果糖含量分别提高了107.31%和50.57%,蔗糖含量分别提高了70.53%和47.35%;有利于提高AI、NI、SS、SPS 4种蔗糖代谢相关酶的活性,促进果实蔗糖代谢的进行,且降低了转色期、成熟期果实各部位淀粉含量,同时番茄总产量降低。T2处理3个生育期果实各部位糖含量及酶活性居中,番茄总产量最低,为6.05 kg/m2;T3处理果实各部位糖含量及酶活性与T1相差不大,不利于番茄果实各部位糖分的积累,但番茄总产量较高;T1处理下番茄总产量最高,为9.01 kg/m2。【结论】微咸水直接灌溉和微咸水淡水按次轮灌可以提高果实各部位葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖的含量,从而改善番茄果实品质,可结合当地生产条件和消费群体适当选用微咸水进行灌溉。
关键词:  番茄  微咸水  灌溉方式  糖积累  蔗糖代谢相关酶
DOI:
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31560569);宁夏科技支撑计划项目
Effects of saline water irrigation on sugar accumulation and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes of greenhouse tomato
LI Juan, TIAN Ping, LI Jianshe,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study explored the effects of saline water irrigation on sugar contents of tomato fruit and activities of sucrose metabolism related enzymes to provide basis for reasonable and safe use of saline water and sustainable cultivation of solar greenhouse tomato.【Method】Tomato variety “Jingfan 301” was selected for sand trough cultivation.With the same anti seepage measure and irrigation quota,this experiment used direct saline water (EC=3.0 mS/cm) irrigation as control (CK) and set up four treatments including freshwater irrigation (T1),mixing water irrigation (V(saline water)∶V(fresh-water)=1∶1,T2),saline water and freshwater rotating irrigation according to plant growth periods (freshwater irrigation in seedling and flowering periods while saline water irrigation in fruit development period,T3),and saline water and freshwater irrigation in sequence (T4).The effects on contents of glucose,fructose,sucrose and starch and activities of acid invertase (AI),neutral invertase (NI),sucrose synthase (SS),and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) relating to sucrose metabolism of different parts of tomato fruits (pericarp,pulp,dissepiment,and colloid placenta) at white-mature period,color turning period and mature period were analyzed.【Result】Overall, CK and T4 were beneficial to improve the contents of glucose,fructose and sucrose of all parts of tomato fruit at all three growth periods.Compared to T1,CK and T4 increased the glucose contents in pulp at mature period by 31.55% and 30.17%,and increased the fructose contents by 107.31% and 50.57%,increased the sucrose contents by 70.53% and 47.35%,respectively.CK and T4 improved the activities of AI,NI,SS,and SPS,and promoted the progress of fruit sugar metabolism.CK and T4 also reduced the starch contents of all parts of tomato fruit at color turning period and mature period and decreased tomato production.T2 treatment had medium sugar contents and enzyme activities at every part of tomato fruits at three development periods and the lowest yield of 6.05 kg/m2.T3 had the similar sugar contents and enzyme activities as T1.T3 was not beneficial for sugar accumulation of tomato fruits,but the yield was high.T1 had the highest yield of 9.01 kg/m2.【Conclusion】Direct saline water irrigation and saline water freshwater irrigation in sequence improved the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose in four parts of tomato fruit at three growth periods,improved fruit quality,and was suitable irrigation combining with local production conditions and consumer groups.
Key words:  tomato  saline water  irrigation method  sugar accumulation  sucrose-metabolizing enzymes