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鸭种蛋质量和蛋形指数对孵化效果的影响
甘心梦, 刘贺贺, 胡继伟,等
四川农业大学 畜禽遗传资源发掘与创新利用四川省重点实验室
摘要:
【目的】研究鸭入孵蛋质量与蛋形指数对孵化过程中种蛋质量、孵化成绩及雏鸭初生体质量的影响。【方法】将同一天收集的黑鹜鸭(H)、建昌鸭(J)和农华肉鸭P系(P)种蛋测量其入孵蛋质量、长径和短径,计算蛋形指数。将种蛋分别按入孵蛋质量和蛋形指数分为3组,进行同批变温孵化,从孵化第7天起每3 d照蛋1次,称量并记录种蛋质量,剔除无精蛋和死胚蛋,从孵化第26天起每天检查出雏情况,记录雏鸭初生体质量。计算入孵蛋孵化率、受精蛋孵化率、孵化期间种蛋质量损失量和质量损失率,分析鸭入孵蛋质量和蛋形指数对孵化效果的影响。【结果】3个品种不同入孵蛋质量和蛋形指数的种蛋质量损失量和质量损失率无显著差异,且变化趋势相同。入孵蛋质量分组方面,黑鹜鸭1组(质量<64.84 g/枚)、建昌鸭1组(质量<76.94 g/枚)和农华肉鸭P系1组(质量<88.03 g/枚)的受精蛋孵化率最高,黑鹜鸭2组(质量64.84~76.28 g/枚)、建昌鸭1组(质量<76.94 g/枚)和农华肉鸭P系1组(质量<88.03 g/枚)的入孵蛋孵化率最高;蛋形指数分组方面,黑鹜鸭3组(>1.42)、建昌鸭1组(<1.30)和农华肉鸭P系3组(>1.39)的受精蛋孵化率和入孵蛋孵化率均最高。各品种雏鸭初生体质量与入孵蛋质量呈显著正相关(P<0.05),与蛋形指数无明显相关性(P>0.05)。【结论】孵化过程中鸭种蛋的质量损失量和质量损失率与入孵蛋质量和蛋形指数无关,不同鸭品种的最佳入孵蛋质量与蛋形指数范围不同;雏鸭初生体质量随入孵蛋质量的增大而增大,但蛋形指数对其无显著影响。
关键词:  鸭入孵蛋质量  蛋形指数  质量损失量  孵化效果  初生体质量
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:四川省产业链重大专项(2014NZ0030);国家自然科学基金项目(31301964)
Effects of duck egg weight and shape index on hatchability
GAN Xinmeng, LIU Hehe, HU Jiwei,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】This study investigated the effects of hatching egg weight and shape index on egg weight during incubation periods,hatching results and duckling birth weight of three duck breeds,including Heiwu duck (H),Jianchang duck (J) and Nonghua P strain meat duck (P).【Method】All the eggs were picked up on the same day.Weight,long diameter and short diameter for each egg were determined before hatching.Egg shape index was then calculated.The eggs of 3 breeds were divided into 3 groups according to the hatching egg weight and egg shape index,and incubated these eggs in the same batch with changing temperature.The eggs were checked every 3 days from the 7th day,and the egg weight was weighed and recorded.Infertile eggs and dead eggs were removed by checking.From the 26th day,the hatch was checked and the duckling birth weight was recorded every day.The hatching rate,hatching rate of fertilized eggs,egg weightlessness and egg weightlessness rate during incubation period were calculated.Finally,the effects of hatching egg weight and egg shape index on hatchability were analyzed.【Result】The hatching egg weight and egg shape index of 3 breeds duck had no significant difference in egg weightlessness and weightlessness rate. The trends of egg weightlessness and egg weightlessness rates were similar in different groups.The highest hatching rates of fertilized eggs were obtained in Heiwu duck first group (<64.84 g),Jianchang duck first group (<76.94 g) and Nonghua P strain meat duck first group (<88.03 g) among hatching egg weight groups.The Heiwu duck second group (64.85-76.28 g),Jianchang duck first group (<76.94 g) and Nonghua P strain meat duck first group (<88.03 g) among hatching egg weight groups had the highest hatching rates.In egg shape index groups,the highest hatching rate of fertilized eggs and the highest hatching rate were obtained in Heiwu duck third group (>1.42),Jianchang duck first group (<1.30) and Nonghua P strain meat duck third group (>1.39).The correlation between duckling birth weight and hatching egg weight was significant (P<0.05),while egg shape index had no significant effect on duckling birth weight (P>0.05).【Conclusion】The duck egg weightlessness and egg weightlessness rates were not related to hatching egg weight and egg shape index during incubation periods.The best hatching egg weight range and egg shape index range of each breed were different.The duckling birth weight increased with the egg weight while it was not affected by egg shape index.
Key words:  duck egg weight  egg shape index  egg weightlessness  hatchability  duckling birth weight