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流域下垫面特征对多年平均径流系数的影响
石扬旭, 张友静, 李鑫川,等
河海大学 地球科学与工程学院
摘要:
【目的】分析流域地貌结构特征、土地利用/覆盖分类以及土壤物理性质对其多年平均径流系数的影响,确定影响流域多年平均径流系数的重要下垫面因子,为流域土地利用、水利工程建设、防洪减灾、水资源开发利用等人类开发活动提供科学依据。【方法】选取淮河上游23个小流域为研究对象,使用ArcGIS10.3等软件处理得到坡度、面积高程积分、曲率、河网分形维数等流域地貌结构特征因子,使用遥感图像处理软件ENVI5.1处理得到流域土地利用分类结果,并在EXCEL中对流域多年平均径流系数和各下垫面因子进行相关性分析。【结果】在流域地貌结构因子中,多年平均径流系数与平均坡度和面积高程积分关系最好,且均为正相关关系,确定性系数分别为0.485 7和0.478 6。在土地利用/覆盖方面,林地、耕地面积所占比例对多年平均径流系数有较大影响,其中林草地面积占比与流域多年平均径流系数成呈相关关系,耕地面积占比与流域多年平均径流系数呈负相关关系,确定性系数分别为0.292和0.262 3。在土壤条件方面,各因子与多年平均径流系数相关性均较为微弱。【结论】在研究区内众多地貌结构因子中,平均坡度和面积高程积分对多年平均径流系数影响最大,林地、耕地面积所占比例影响较大,土壤物理性质方面则影响微弱。
关键词:  多年平均径流系数  下垫面  地貌结构特征  土地利用/覆盖  土壤物理性质  淮河流域
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重大科技专项(08-Y30B07-9001-13/15)
Influence of underlying surface characteristics of river basin on annual runoff coefficient
SHI Yangxu, ZHANG Youjing, LI Xinchuan,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】The effects of geomorphic structurefeatures,land use/cover classification and soil physical properties on mean annual runoff coefficient were analyzed to obtain important underlying factors affecting the mean annual runoff coefficient and provide scientific basis for human development activities such as land use,water conservancy construction,flood control and disaster mitigation,as well as water resources development and utilization.【Method】A total of 23 small watersheds in the upper Huaihe River were selected, and features of landform such as slope,elevation integral,curvature and river network fractal dimension were obtained by ArcGIS10.3 software.The land use classification results of watershed were processed by remote sensing with ENVI5.1,and correlation coefficients between average annual runoff coefficient and underlying surface factors were analyzed in EXCEL.【Result】Among the basin geomorphic structure factors,mean annual runoff coefficient has the best relationship with mean slope and area elevation integral with positive correlation coefficients of 0.485 7 and 0.478 6,respectively.In the aspect of land use/cover,proportions of forestland and arable land had great influence on mean annual runoff coefficient.The proportion of forestland area was positively related with the mean annual runoff coefficient of river basin with coefficient of 0.292,while proportion of cultivated land area was negatively related with it with deterministic coefficient of 0.262 3.Factors of soil condition had weak relationships with mean annual runoff coefficient.【Conclusion】In the study area,the mean slope and area elevation integral had the greatest influence on average runoff coefficient,followed by the proportions of woodland and cultivated land,while soil physical properties had weak effects.
Key words:  mean annual runoff coefficient  underlying surface  geomorphic structure features  land use/land cover  soil physical properties  Huaihe River Basin