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施钾对木薯产量和品质及大中微量元素吸收的影响
魏云霞,苏必孟,黄 洁,等
作者单位
魏云霞 中国热带农业科学院 热带作物品种资源研究所/农业部木薯种质资源保护与利用重点实验室 
苏必孟 中国热带农业科学院 热带作物品种资源研究所/农业部木薯种质资源保护与利用重点实验室;海南大学 农学院 
黄 洁,等 中国热带农业科学院 热带作物品种资源研究所/农业部木薯种质资源保护与利用重点实验室 
摘要:
【目的】研究不同施钾量对木薯产量、大中微量元素吸收及品质的影响,为木薯合理施钾提供理论依据。【方法】采用田间试验,以我国主栽木薯品种“SC205”为材料,K2O施用量设0,60,120,180,240 kg/hm2共5个水平,于收获期测定木薯薯块、茎秆、叶片的生物量及N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Mn、Cu、Zn含量,并测定薯块可溶性糖和淀粉含量。【结果】1)与不施钾相比,施钾可显著提高薯块、茎秆和叶片鲜产量,其中鲜薯增产9.87%~25.57%;随施钾量增加,鲜薯产量先增加后降低,K2O施用量为60~120 kg/hm2时,鲜薯产量较高。2)施钾可以明显提高薯块、茎秆和叶片的K含量,提高薯块的Mn、Zn、可溶性糖及淀粉含量,但Mg含量有所降低,同时还可以提高薯块、茎秆和叶片的K/N、K/P、K/Ca、K/Mg、K/Mn、K/Cu、K/Zn值。3)施钾能显著提高薯块K、Mn、Zn、可溶性糖、淀粉的积累量,其中可溶性糖和淀粉积累量的增幅分别为7.65%~32.91%和12.65%~53.41%,K2O施用量为60~120 kg/hm2时,薯块各矿质元素、可溶性糖及淀粉积累量均处于较高水平;施钾可显著降低钾素在薯块中的分配比例。4)薯块的P、K、Mn及可溶性糖含量与施钾量呈极显著或显著正相关。【结论】为获得较高的木薯产量、大中微量元素积累量、品质及经济效益,建议最佳的K2O施用量为95~130 kg/hm2
关键词:  木薯  钾肥  营养元素  木薯产量  可溶性糖  淀粉
DOI:
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基金项目:农业部现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-12-hnhj)
Effects of potassium application on yield,quality and absorption of macro-,meso-,and micro nutrients of cassava
WEI Yunxia,SU Bimeng,HUANG Jie,et al
Abstract:
【Objective】Effects of potassium application on yield,absorption of macro-,meso- and micro-nutrients as well as quality of cassava were studied to improve potassium fertilization management on cassava. 【Method】Variety SC205,widely cultivated across south China,was planted in field with five K2O rates of 0,60,120,180 and 240 kg/hm2.After harvest,the plants were divided into root,stem and leaf to measure biomass,contents of N,P, K,Ca,Mg, Mn,Cu,and Zn,and contents of soluble sugars and starch in root.【Result】1) K application significantly improved fresh yields of three organs (root,stem and leaf).Especially,the fresh root yield (FRY) increased by 9.87%-25.57%.With the increase of K2O amount,FRY increased before decreasing and reached the highest level at 60-120 kg/hm2.2) K supply obviously improved K contents in all organs,contents of Mn,Zn,soluble sugars,and starch in root, while decreased Mg contents.The K/N,K/P,K/Ca,K/Mg,K/Mn, K/Cu and K/Zn ratios in all organs were also increased.3) K supply significantly increased accumulation amounts of K,Mn,Zn,soluble sugars and starch in root.Soluble sugars and starch accumulation were increased by 7.65%-32.91% and 12.65%-53.41%,respectively.Accumulation of nutrients,soluble sugars and starch in root achieved highest level at 60-120 kg/hm2.K application also significantly decreased K distribution ratios in root.4) Correlation analysis showed that P,K,Mn and soluble sugars contents in root had extremely significantly or significantly positive correlation with K2O rate.【Conclusion】Based on FRY,nutrients absorption,quality and economic benefit,the optimum application was 95-130 kg/hm2 for cassava.
Key words:  cassava  K fertilizers  nutrient element  cassava yield  soluble sugars  starch