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秦岭北麓猕猴桃嫁接时期研究
邓丰产,刘占德,陈永安
作者单位
邓丰产 西北农林科技大学 园艺学院 
刘占德 西北农林科技大学 园艺学院 
陈永安 西北农林科技大学 园艺学院 
摘要:
【目的】探索秦岭北麓地区猕猴桃主要栽培品种嫁接苗繁育的适宜嫁接时期,为猕猴桃成品苗木的嫁接繁育提供技术支持。【方法】以田间生长的野生“美味猕猴桃”2年生实生苗作砧木,以“海沃德”、“徐香”和“红阳” 3个品种作接穗,2010年在猕猴桃旺盛生长的不同时期(06-01,06-15,07-01,07-15,08-01,08-15,09-01,09-15)带木质芽接,测定嫁接成活率、萌芽率、嫁接苗干径、枝条长度及次年萌芽率。【结果】随着嫁接时间的延长,嫁接苗的生长量持续减少,成活率和萌芽率在波动中下降,“海沃德”在08-01后嫁接成活率降为80%以下,“徐香”在09 01后嫁接成活率降为80%以下,“红阳”在各时期的嫁接成活率始终保持在75%以上。08-15后嫁接的3个品种苗木的萌芽率均显著降低,09-01和09-15嫁接获得的成品苗和半成品苗栽植后的次年萌芽率极低,仅为8.00%~26.00%。【结论】秦岭北麓猕猴桃主栽品种“海沃德”、“徐香”和“红阳”嫁接的适宜时期是06-01-08-01,嫁接越早,生长情况越好。3个主栽品种在野生“美味猕猴桃”实生苗上的嫁接成活率、萌芽率和生长情况均以“红阳”最高,“徐香”次之,“海沃德”最低。
关键词:  秦岭北麓  猕猴桃  繁育  嫁接时间
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:农业部“948”项目(2011-Z23);陕西省果业发展项目(201112)
Kiwifruit grafting efficiencies with different dates and cultivars in the northern area of Qinling Mountains
Abstract:
【Objective】The experiment was designed to explore the preferred grafting dates for propagation of main kiwifruit cultivars in the northern area of Qinling Mountains for better grafting efficiencies.【Method】In this study,Hayward,Xuxiang and Hongyang scions were grafted to 2-year-old seedlings of wild Actinidia chinensis var.deliciosa on 8 different dates(1st June,15th June,1st July,15th July,1st August,15th August,1st September,and 15th September)during the exuberant growing period.Bud-take rates,sprouting rates,diameters and lengths of the grafts were measured.【Result】As the grafting dates were delayed,the growth of grafts decreased gradually,and the bud-takes and sprouting rates dropped fluctuately.The bud-take rates of Hayward dropped to less than 80% for that grafted on 15th August,and the bud-take rates of Xuxiang dropped to less than 80% on 1st September,while the bud-take rates of Hongyang remained at more than 80% for all the grafting dates.The scion sprouting rates of three cultivars grafts decreased significantly for those grafted later than 15th August.At the second year,the scion sprouting rates of finished and semifinished seedlings grafted on 1st September and 15th September was as low as 8.00%-26.00%.【Conclusion】In the northern area of Qinling Mountains,the suggested grafting dates of main kiwifruit cultivars Hayward,Xuxiang and Hongyang are from 1st June to 1st August.The earlier they are grafted,the more growth and higher survival rates they will get.Hongyang got the highest bud-take,sprouting and growth rates followed by Xuxiang,and Hayward got the lowest among the three main cultivars grafted in A.chinensis var.deliciosa rootstocks.
Key words:  northern area of Qinling Mountains  kiwifruit  propagation  grafting times