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不同土壤水分条件对酸枣生物量与耗水特性的影响
周自云1, 梁宗锁1,2, 刘启明3
1.西北农林科技大学 生命科学学院;2.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所;3.延安常泰制药公司
摘要:
【目的】通过盆栽试验研究酸枣生物量与耗水特性的关系,为酸枣的生产管理提供参考。【方法】以1年生酸枣为研究对象,用称质量控水法控制土壤水分含量,设重度胁迫(SD,含水量为田间持水量的35%)、中度胁迫(MD,含水量为田间持水量的55%)和适宜水分(CK,含水量为田间持水量的75%)3个水分处理,测算不同水分处理条件下酸枣的耗水量、单株生物量、组织含水量、叶片数及叶面积,分析酸枣生物量与耗水特性的关系。【结果】不同土壤水分条件下,酸枣耗水量差异很大,土壤水分含量越高,酸枣耗水量越大;适宜水分条件下酸枣的平均耗水强度为0.117 8 kg/(株·d);土壤越干旱,酸枣组织含水量越低,在中度和重度胁迫水分条件下,酸枣的平均耗水强度分别为0.086 8和0.072 3 kg/(株·d);酸枣的全年耗水量高峰出现在7月底到8月中旬。3个水分条件下,酸枣生物量和组织含水量均表现为CK>MD>SD,叶片数和叶面积最大值表现为CK>MD>SD,叶片数最大值的出现时间以SD早于MD和CK。【结论】水分供应越少酸枣组织含水量越低,而且即使在适宜的水分条件下,酸枣的组织含水量也低于700 g/kg;生长后期落叶,叶片对气孔的控制能力下降,导致生长后期耗水量的反常增加;酸枣存在明显午休现象;干旱导致的过早停止生长是酸枣植株矮小的主要原因。
关键词:  酸枣  干旱胁迫  生物量  耗水特性
DOI:
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基金项目:中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX2-XB2-05-01);国家“十一五”支撑计划项目(2008BAD98B08)
Effects of soil water content on biomass and water consumption characteristics of wild jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill var.Spinosus (Bunge Hu ex H.F.Chou)
Abstract:
【Objective】 The relationship between biomass and water consumption characteristics of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var.Spinosus (Bunge) Hu ex H.F.Chou which was cultivated in pot on different soil water contents was studied,then the result can be consulted by wild jujube growers.【Method】Wild jujube seedling was cultivated in soils of three moisture levels,which was severe drought (SD,water content was 35% of field capacity),moderate drought (MD,water content was 55% of field capacity) and suitable water(CK,water content was 75% of field capacity).Soil water content was weighed to control.Water consumption,biomass of individual plant,leaf number and leaf area were measured to analyze the relationship between biomass and water consumption characteristics.【Result】Water consumptions of wild jujube on different soil water contents were different.Water consumption was higher on higher soil moisture.The average water consumption of wild jujube on suitable soil water was 0.117 8 kg/(plant·d).The more arid the soil,the lower the water content of wild jujube.The average water consumption intensity of wild jujube of MD was 0.086 8 kg/(plant·d),and that of SD was 0.072 3 kg/(plant·d).The highest water consumption of wild jujube was from the end of July to the middle of August.The biomass and water content of wild jujube showed such an order as CK>MD>SD.The maximum value of wild jujube leaf number and leaf area showed CK>MD>SD,and the time of the maximum value of leaf number of SD was earlier than MD and CK.【Conclusion】 The water content of wild jujube was lower with the more drought soil.Although the soil water content was moderate,the water content of wild jujube was lower than 700 g/kg.The stomata of leaves of wild jujube can not control moisture loss with leaves falling,so there was more water consumption.It’s obvious that wild jujube had midday depression.The main reason which wild jujube was short under drought was because growing was stopped earlier.
Key words:  wild jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill var.Spinosus (Bunge) Hu ex H.F.Chou)  drought stress  biomass  water consumption characteristic